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Lignified cell walls are widely considered to be key innovations in the evolution of terrestrial plants from aquatic ancestors some 475 million years ago. Lignins, complex aromatic heteropolymers, stiffen and fortify secondary cell walls within xylem tissues, creating a dense matrix that binds cellulose microfibrils and crosslinks other wall components,(More)
We begin by giving away our punch line: A lack of physiological insight is the primary impediment to the successful prediction of the ecological effects of climatic change. To be sure, there are uncertainties in our predictions of future climate, especially at the local scale, and the complexities of ecological interactions stretch our ability to model(More)
SUMMARY 1. Determinations were made of several physical properties of the viscid and frame silks of the orb-webs built by the spider Araneus sericatus (Cl.). 2. Both types of silk show a breaking stress of approximately 1 GN/m 2 and an initial resilience of approximately 0-35. 3. The breaking extension ratio of viscid silk (A = 3*00) is much greater than(More)
(2008) Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces. (2008) Reduction of wave forces within bare patches in mussel beds. M. (2007) Temperature effects on low-light vision in juvenile rockfish (Genus Sebastes) and consequences for habitat utilization. (2007) The effects of temperature on producers, consumers,(More)
Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand(More)
On wave-swept rocky shores, limpets are subjected to water velocities in excess of 20 m s(-1), which may impose large hydrodynamic forces. Despite the extreme severity of this flow environment, predictions from conical models suggest that limpets' shells are typically far from the optimal shape that would minimize the risk of dislodgment, a deviation that(More)
Wave-swept marine algae must contend with the hydrodynamic forces imposed by extreme water velocities. Nonetheless, they seldom have a shape that appears streamlined and they are constructed of weak, compliant materials. How do they survive? The answer is complex, but a coherent story is beginning to emerge. The combined effect of frond shape and material(More)
Hydrodynamic forces from breaking waves are among the most important sources of mortality in the rocky intertidal zone. Information about the forces imposed by breaking waves is therefore critical if we are to interpret the mechanical design and physiological performance of wave-swept organisms in an ecologically and evolutionarily relevant context. Wave(More)
When coupled with long-term meteorological records, a heat-budget model for the limpet, Lottia gigantea, provides a wealth of information regarding environmental and topographic controls of body temperature in this ecologically important species. (1) The maximum body temperature predicted for any site (37.5 degrees C) is insufficient to kill all limpets,(More)