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Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand(More)
Lignified cell walls are widely considered to be key innovations in the evolution of terrestrial plants from aquatic ancestors some 475 million years ago. Lignins, complex aromatic heteropolymers, stiffen and fortify secondary cell walls within xylem tissues, creating a dense matrix that binds cellulose microfibrils and crosslinks other wall components,(More)
The power of locomotion of a terrestrial slug rises linearly with crawling speed. The metabolic cost of movement is 904 joules per kilogram per meter, considerably more than that reported for other forms of locomotion. This high cost is primarily attributable to the production of the pedal mucus by which the slug adheres to the substratum.
We begin by giving away our punch line: A lack of physiological insight is the primary impediment to the successful prediction of the ecological effects of climatic change. To be sure, there are uncertainties in our predictions of future climate, especially at the local scale, and the complexities of ecological interactions stretch our ability to model(More)
(2008) Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces. (2008) Reduction of wave forces within bare patches in mussel beds. M. (2007) Temperature effects on low-light vision in juvenile rockfish (Genus Sebastes) and consequences for habitat utilization. (2007) The effects of temperature on producers, consumers,(More)
SUMMARY 1. Determinations were made of several physical properties of the viscid and frame silks of the orb-webs built by the spider Araneus sericatus (Cl.). 2. Both types of silk show a breaking stress of approximately 1 GN/m 2 and an initial resilience of approximately 0-35. 3. The breaking extension ratio of viscid silk (A = 3*00) is much greater than(More)
Redistributed by Stanford University under license with the author. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License. ii I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I(More)
Are there absolute limits to the speed at which animals can run? If so, how close are present-day individuals to these limits? I approach these questions by using three statistical models and data from competitive races to estimate maximum running speeds for greyhounds, thoroughbred horses and elite human athletes. In each case, an absolute speed limit is(More)
Water velocities as high as 25 m s Ϫ1 have been recorded in the surf zone of wave-swept rocky shores—velocities more than twice the phase speed of the breaking waves with which they are associated. How can water travel twice as fast as the waveform that initially induces its velocity? We explore the possibility that the interaction of a wave with the local(More)