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High levels of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 mutants G93A and G37R were previously shown to mediate disease in mice through an acquired toxic property. We report here that even low levels of another mutant, G85R, cause motor neuron disease characterized by an extremely rapid clinical progression, without changes in SOD1 activity.(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a glutamine repeat in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of HD, we generated transgenic mice that express a cDNA encoding an N-terminal fragment (171 amino acids) of huntingtin with 82, 44 or 18 glutamines. Mice(More)
Axon outgrowth during development and neurotransmitter release depends on exocytotic mechanisms, although what protein machinery is common to or differentiates these processes remains unclear. Here we show that the neural t-SNARE (target-membrane-associated-soluble N-ethylmaleimide fusion protein attachment protein (SNAP) receptor) SNAP-25 is not required(More)
To examine the mechanism through which neurofilaments regulate the caliber of myelinated axons and to test how aberrant accumulations of neurofilaments cause motor neuron disease, mice have been constructed that express wild-type mouse NF-H up to 4.5 times the normal level. Small increases in NF-H expression lead to increased total neurofilament content and(More)
An expanded polyglutamine domain in huntingtin underlies the pathogenic events in Huntington disease (HD), characterized by chorea, dementia and severe weight loss, culminating in death. Transglutaminase (TGase) may be critical in the pathogenesis, via cross-linking huntingtin. Administration of the TGase competitive inhibitor, cystamine, to transgenic mice(More)
Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; EC 1.15.1.1) are responsible for a proportion of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through acquisition of an as-yet-unidentified toxic property or properties. Two proposed possibilities are that toxicity may arise from imperfectly folded mutant SOD1 catalyzing the nitration of tyrosines [Beckman, J. S.,(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by CAG triplet repeat expansion in IT15 which leads to polyglutamine stretches in the HD protein product, huntingtin. The pathological hallmark of HD is the degeneration of subsets of neurons, primarily those in the striatum and neocortex. Specific morphological markers of affected cells have not been identified in(More)
Superoxide and superoxide-derived oxidants have been hypothesized to be important mediators of postischemic injury. Whereas copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, SOD1, efficiently dismutates superoxide, there has been controversy regarding whether increasing intracellular SOD1 expression would protect against or potentiate cellular injury. To determine whether(More)
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates progenitor cells during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis in multiple organ systems. We have investigated the activity of this pathway in adult gliomas, and demonstrate that the Hh pathway is operational and activated within grade II and III gliomas, but not grade IV de novo glioblastoma multiforme. Furthermore,(More)
Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a(More)