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BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by(More)
The development of DNA microarray technologies over the past decade has revolutionised translational cancer research. These technologies were originally hailed as more objective, comprehensive replacements for traditional histopathological cancer classification systems, based on microscopic morphology. Although DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lethal progressive lung disease culminating in permanent airway obstruction and alveolar enlargement. Previous studies suggest CTL involvement in COPD progression; however, their precise role remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the CTL activation receptor NK cell group 2D (NKG2D) contributes to(More)
Immune surveillance of the airways is critical to maintain the integrity and health of the lung. We have identified a family of ligands expressed on the surface of stressed airway epithelial cells whose function is to bind the NKG2D-activating receptor found on several pulmonary lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, gammadelta(+) T cells, and CD8(+)(More)
BACKGROUND Persistent macrophage accumulation and alveolar enlargement are hallmark features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A role for CD8(+) lymphocytes in the development of COPD is suggested based on observations that this T cell subset is increased in the airways and parenchyma of smokers that develop COPD with airflow limitation. In(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of 0.005% latanoprost solution on intraocular pressure (IOP) of eyes of clinically normal horses and establish the frequency of adverse effects of drug administration. ANIMALS 20 adult clinically normal horses. PROCEDURE IOP was recorded (7, 9, and 11 AM; 3, 5, and 7 PM) on days 1 and 2 (baseline), days 3 to 7(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma (GBM) genomes feature recurrent genetic alterations that dysregulate core intracellular signaling pathways, including the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and the MAPK and PI3K effector arms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Elucidation of the phenotypic consequences of activated RTK effectors is required for the design of(More)
Over the last decade, genetically engineered mouse models have been extensively used to dissect the genetic requirements for neoplastic initiation and progression of diffuse gliomas. While these models faithfully recapitulate the histopathological features of human gliomas, comparative genomic analyses are increasingly being utilized to comprehensively(More)
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from(More)
BACKGROUND Glioma stem cells (GSCs) from human glioblastomas (GBMs) are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy and may drive recurrence. Treatment efficacy may depend on GSCs, expression of DNA repair enzymes such as methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), or transcriptome subtype. METHODS To model genetic alterations in human GBM core signaling(More)