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Many marine bacteria have evolved to grow optimally at either high (copiotrophic) or low (oligotrophic) nutrient concentrations, enabling different species to colonize distinct trophic habitats in the oceans. Here, we compare the genome sequences of two bacteria, Photobacterium angustum S14 and Sphingopyxis alaskensis RB2256, that serve as useful model(More)
Factors influencing patterns in the distribution and abundance of plant and animal taxa modulate ecosystem function and ecosystem response to environmental change, which is often taken to infer low functional redundancy among such species, but such relationships are poorly known for microbial communities. Using high-resolution molecular fingerprinting, we(More)
The bacterial populations associated with sea ice sampled from Antarctic coastal areas were investigated by use of a phenotypic approach and a phylogenetic approach based on genes encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). The diversity of bacteria associated with sea ice was also compared with the bacterial diversity of seawater underlying sea ice. Psychrophilic(More)
For two centuries, biologists have documented a gradient of animal and plant biodiversity from the tropics to the poles but have been unable to agree whether it is controlled primarily by productivity, temperature, or historical factors. Recent reports that find latitudinal diversity gradients to be reduced or absent in some unicellular organisms and(More)
Viruses are abundant ubiquitous members of microbial communities and in the marine environment affect population structure and nutrient cycling by infecting and lysing primary producers. Antarctic lakes are microbially dominated ecosystems supporting truncated food webs in which viruses exert a major influence on the microbial loop. Here we report the(More)
We outline an approach to simultaneously assess multilevel microbial diversity patterns utilizing 16S-ITS rDNA clone libraries coupled with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Sequence data from 512 clones allowed estimation of ARISA fragment lengths associated with bacteria in a coastal marine environment. We matched 92% of ARISA peaks(More)
In nature, the complexity and structure of microbial communities varies widely, ranging from a few species to thousands of species, and from highly structured to highly unstructured communities. Here, we describe the identity and functional capacity of microbial populations within distinct layers of a pristine, marine-derived, meromictic (stratified) lake(More)
The ubiquitous SAR11 bacterial clade is the most abundant type of organism in the world's oceans, but the reasons for its success are not fully elucidated. We analysed 128 surface marine metagenomes, including 37 new Antarctic metagenomes. The large size of the data set enabled internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions to be obtained from the Southern polar(More)
Antarctica is arguably the world's most important continent for influencing the Earth's climate and ocean ecosystem function. The unique physico-chemical properties of the Southern Ocean enable high levels of microbial primary production to occur. This not only forms the base of a significant fraction of the global oceanic food web, but leads to the(More)
The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421(T) is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom(More)