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Simulations of cardiac electrical activity are generally computed in idealized or generic domains. We have developed a semi-automated technique for imaging an extended volume of cardiac ventricular tissue at a resolution of approximately 1 microm, and constructing from those images a geometric and structural model with 10 microm resolution suitable for(More)
The heart is a vital organ that relies on the orchestrated propagation of electrical stimuli to coordinate each heart beat. Abnormalities in the heart’s electrical behaviour can be managed with a cardiac pacemaker. Recently, the closed-loop testing of pacemakers with an emulation (real-time simulation) of the heart has been proposed. An emulated heart would(More)
We study the problem of modular code generation for emulating the electrical conduction system of the heart, which is essential for the validation of implantable devices such as pacemakers. In order to develop high fidelity models, it is essential to consider the operation of hundreds, if not millions of conduction elements, called nodes of the heart.(More)
Models of the cardiac conduction system are usually at two extremes: (1) high fidelity models with excellent precision but lacking a real-time response for emulation (hardware in the loop simulation); or (2) models amenable for emulation, but that do not exhibit appropriate dynamic response, which is necessary for arrhythmia susceptibility. We introduce two(More)
OBJECTIVE A flexible, efficient and verifiable pacemaker cell model is essential to the design of real-time virtual hearts that can be used for closed-loop validation of cardiac devices. A new parametric model of pacemaker action potential is developed to address this need. METHODS The action potential phases are modeled using hybrid automaton (HA) with(More)
Hybrid systems combine discrete controllers with adjoining physical processes. While many approaches exist for simulating hybrid systems, there are few approaches for their emulation, especially when the actual physical plant is not available. This paper develops the first formal framework for emulation along with a new compiler that enables large-scale(More)
We present, for what we believe is the first time, results of continuous-wave diode-pumping of a Nd:YVO (4) laser with an adaptive gain-grating resonator. The system is shown to produce more than a 7-W output in a TEM>(00) single longitudinal mode with a laser beam propagation parameter M(2) of <1.3 and <1.1 in the x and y axes, respectively. We demonstrate(More)
Hybrid systems are discrete controllers that are used for controlling a physical process (plant) exhibiting continuous dynamics. A hybrid automata (HA) is a well known and widely used formal model for the specification of such systems. While many methods exist for simulating hybrid automata, there are no known approaches for the automatic code generation(More)
High-phase-conjugate reflectivities of >800% have been achieved through degenerate four-wave mixing in a cw diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO(4) amplifier. Reflectivity curves are shown as a function of input pump-beam intensity for three values of small-signal amplifier gain, and comparison is made with a numerical simulation.
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