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CO2 laser induced pyrolysis of silane was used to produce silicon nanoparticles with an average diameter as small as 5 nm at high rates (up to 200 mg/h). Etching these particles with a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and nitric acid (HNO3) reduces their size and passivates their surface such that they exhibit bright visible photoluminescence (PL). This(More)
Bionanocombinatorics is an emerging field that aims to use combinations of positionally encoded biomolecules and nanostructures to create materials and devices with unique properties or functions. The full potential of this new paradigm could be accessed by exploiting specific noncovalent interactions between diverse palettes of biomolecules and inorganic(More)
The growth of silicon films via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is of considerable importance in the microelectronics and photo-voltaics industries. This process often involves the thermal decomposition of silane, which is achieved by heating the wafer or rod to be coated to a suitable temperature. A wide range of geometries and conditions are employed. For(More)
Product contamination by particles nucleated within the processing environment often limits the deposition rate during chemical vapor deposition processes. A fundamental understanding of how these particles nucleate could allow higher growth rates while minimizing particle contamination. Here we present an extensive chemical kinetic mechanism for silicon(More)
By separating formic acid hydrolysates with high pressure chromatography on an Aminex-10 column, we determined the ratio of 5-methyl cytosine to cytosine and other bases of DNA from sea urchin sperm and nuclei of embryos from early cleavage through pluteus stages. Contrary to several previous reports, we could not find any measurable changes in the(More)
Current clinical therapies for critical-sized bone defects (CSBDs) remain far from ideal. Previous studies have demonstrated that engineering bone tissue using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is feasible. However, this approach is not effective for CSBDs due to inadequate vascularization. In our previous study, we have developed an injectable and porous nano(More)
Quantum dots have been used in biomedical research for imaging, diagnostics and sensing purposes. However, concerns over the cytotoxicity of their heavy metal constituents and conflicting results from in vitro and small animal toxicity studies have limited their translation towards clinical applications. Here, we show in a pilot study that rhesus macaques(More)
Quantum dots (QDs) have size-dependent optical properties that make them uniquely advantageous for in vivo targeted fluorescence imaging, traceable delivery, and therapy. The use of group II-VI (e.g., CdSe) QDs for these applications is advancing rapidly. However, group II-VI QDs contain toxic heavy metals that limit their in vivo applications. Thus,(More)
Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent nanocrystals with rich surface chemistry and unique optical properties that make them useful as probes or carriers for traceable targeted delivery and therapy applications. QDs can be functionalized to target specific cells or tissues by conjugating them with targeting ligands. Recent advancement in making biocompatible QD(More)
Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to fabricating high quality quantum dots (QDs) for applications in biology and medicine. Much of this research was pursued with an ultimate goal of using QDs in clinical applications. However, a great deal of concern has been voiced about the potential hazards of QDs due to their heavy-metal content. Many(More)