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The mechanisms by which physical forces regulate endothelial cells to determine the complexities of vascular structure and function are enigmatic. Studies of sensory neurons have suggested Piezo proteins as subunits of Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels for detection of noxious mechanical impact. Here we show Piezo1 (Fam38a) channels as(More)
Insulin resistance is characterized by excessive endothelial cell generation of potentially cytotoxic concentrations of reactive oxygen species. We examined the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) and specifically Nox2 isoform in superoxide generation in two complementary in vivo models of human insulin resistance (endothelial specific and whole body). Using three(More)
We recently demonstrated that reducing IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) numbers in the endothelium enhances nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial cell insulin sensitivity. In the present report, we aimed to examine the effect of increasing IGF-1R on endothelial cell function and repair. To examine the effect of increasing IGF-1R in the endothelium, we(More)
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins (IGFBPs) confer temporospatial regulation to IGF bioactivity. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of IGFBPs on IGF actions have been described, and IGF-independent effects of several IGFBPs are emerging. Accumulating evidence indicates important roles for members of the IGFBP family in metabolic(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore the value of noninvasive predictors of death/mode of death in ambulant outpatients with chronic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND Mortality in chronic HF remains high, with a significant number of patients dying of progressive disease. Identification of these patients is important. METHODS We recruited 553(More)
Reducing the excess cerebrovascular burden in patients with type 2 diabetes remains a major therapeutic challenge, especially with respect to the high risk of recurrent events. Targeting the traditional metabolic risk factors of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia has failed to remove this excess risk, and agents targeting thrombotic risk (i.e.,(More)
OBJECTIVE In mice, haploinsufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R(+/-)), at a whole-body level, increases resistance to inflammation and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that by forming insulin-resistant heterodimers composed of one IGF-1Rαβ and one insulin receptor (IR), IRαβ complex in endothelial cells (ECs),(More)
AIMS We sought to define the mechanisms and correlates of leptin's vascular actions in humans with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS In 131 patients (age 65.7+/-0.7 years mean+/-SEM), ex vivo vascular reactivity to leptin (10(-13)-10(-7) M) was assessed in saphenous vein (SV) rings. Leptin led to SV relaxation (maximal relaxation 24.5+/-1.6%).(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulating angiogenic progenitor cells (APCs) participate in endothelial repair after arterial injury. Type 2 diabetes is associated with fewer circulating APCs, APC dysfunction, and impaired endothelial repair. We set out to determine whether insulin resistance adversely affects APCs and endothelial regeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We(More)
Vacuolar (V)-ATPase is a proton-translocating enzyme that acidifies cellular compartments for various functions such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and protein degradation. Previous studies in Dermacentor variabilis chronically infected with Rickettsia montanensis have identified V-ATPase as one of the tick-derived molecules(More)