Mark T . Howes

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Clathrin-independent endocytosis is an umbrella term for a variety of endocytic pathways that internalize numerous cargoes independently of the canonical coat protein Clathrin [1, 2]. Electron-microscopy studies have defined the pleiomorphic CLathrin-Independent Carriers (CLICs) and GPI-Enriched Endocytic Compartments (GEECs) as related major players in(More)
Although the importance of clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytic pathways has recently emerged, key aspects of these routes remain unknown. Using quantitative ultrastructural approaches, we show that clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) account for approximately three times the volume internalized by the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, forming(More)
Several cell surface molecules including signalling receptors are internalized by clathrin-independent endocytosis. How this process is initiated, how cargo proteins are sorted and membranes are bent remains unknown. Here, we found that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal3), triggered the glycosphingolipid (GSL)-dependent biogenesis of a(More)
Dynamin GTPase activity increases when it oligomerizes either into helices in the presence of lipid templates or into rings in the presence of SH3 domain proteins. Dynasore is a dynamin inhibitor of moderate potency (IC₅₀ ~ 15 μM in vitro). We show that dynasore binds stoichiometrically to detergents used for in vitro drug screening, drastically reducing(More)
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are present at the surface of living cells in cholesterol dependent nanoscale clusters. These clusters appear to act as sorting signals for the selective endocytosis of GPI-APs via a Cdc42-regulated, dynamin and clathrin-independent pinocytic pathway called the GPI-AP-enriched early endosomal(More)
Dysferlin and Caveolin-3 are plasma membrane proteins associated with muscular dystrophy. Patients with mutations in the CAV3 gene show dysferlin mislocalization in muscle cells. By utilizing caveolin-null cells, expression of caveolin mutants, and different mutants of dysferlin, we have dissected the site of action of caveolin with respect to dysferlin(More)
Eukaryotic cells deftly coordinate an array of endocytic pathways beyond the classical clathrin-mediated endocytic route. Although the existence of clathrin-independent endocytic pathways has been accepted for some time, only recently have tools been developed that specifically delineate their fine details, including molecular composition and(More)
Caveolae form a specialized platform within the plasma membrane that is crucial for an array of important biological functions, ranging from signaling to endocytosis. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and 3D fast spinning-disk confocal imaging to follow caveola dynamics for extended periods, and electron microscopy to obtain high(More)
The rho GTPase-activating protein GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1) remodels membranes into tubulovesicular clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) mediating lipid-anchored receptor endocytosis. However, the cell biological functions of this highly prevalent endocytic pathway are unclear. In this article, we present biochemical(More)
Caveolin plays an essential role in the formation of characteristic surface pits, caveolae, which cover the surface of many animal cells. The fundamental principles of caveola formation are only slowly emerging. Here we show that caveolin expression in a prokaryotic host lacking any intracellular membrane system drives the formation of cytoplasmic vesicles(More)