Mark T Gladwin

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The inorganic anions nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) were previously thought to be inert end products of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, recent studies show that these supposedly inert anions can be recycled in vivo to form NO, representing an important alternative source of NO to the classical l-arginine–NO-synthase pathway, in(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease, the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. METHODS We performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women; mean [+/-SD] age, 36+/-12(More)
Nitrite anions comprise the largest vascular storage pool of nitric oxide (NO), provided that physiological mechanisms exist to reduce nitrite to NO. We evaluated the vasodilator properties and mechanisms for bioactivation of nitrite in the human forearm. Nitrite infusions of 36 and 0.36 μmol/min into the forearm brachial artery resulted in supra- and(More)
CONTEXT The efficient sequestration of hemoglobin by the red blood cell membrane and the presence of multiple hemoglobin clearance mechanisms suggest a critical need to prevent the buildup of this molecule in the plasma. A growing list of clinical manifestations attributed to hemoglobin release in a variety of acquired and iatrogenic hemolytic disorders(More)
Knowledge about the role of the right ventricle in health and disease historically has lagged behind that of the left ventricle. Less muscular, restricted in its role to pumping blood through a single organ, and less frequently or obviously involved than the left ventricle in diseases of epidemic proportions such as myocardial ischemia, cardiomyopathy, or(More)
Although the deleterious vasoconstrictive effects of cell-free, hemoglobin-based blood substitutes have been appreciated, the systemic effects of chronic hemolysis on nitric oxide bioavailability have not been considered or quantified. Central to this investigation is the understanding that nitric oxide reacts at least 1,000 times more rapidly with free(More)
Hemolysis, long discounted as a critical measure of sickle cell disease severity when compared with sickle vaso-occlusion, may be the proximate cause of some disease complications. New mechanistic information about hemolysis and its effects on nitric oxide (NO) biology and further examination of the subphenotypes of disease requires a reappraisal and(More)
Pulmonary hypertension is prevalent in adult patients with sickle cell disease and is strongly associated with early mortality and markers of hemolysis, in particular, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Intravascular hemolysis leads to impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), mediated by NO scavenging by plasma oxyhemoglobin and by arginine(More)
CONTEXT Sickle cell disease is characterized by a state of nitric oxide resistance and limited bioavailability of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis. We hypothesized that increased arginase activity and dysregulated arginine metabolism contribute to endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE To(More)
Increased platelet activation is recognized in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its pathogenesis and clinical relevance remain uncertain. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), an important complication of SCD, is characterized by a proliferative pulmonary vasculopathy, in situ thrombosis, and vascular dysfunction related to scavenging of nitric(More)