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Glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide, is essential for the viability and function of virtually all cells. In vitro studies showing that low GSH levels both promote HIV expression and impair T cell function suggested a link between GSH depletion and HIV disease progression. Clinical studies presented here directly demonstrate that low GSH(More)
We show here that CD8 naive T cells are depleted during the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection. Although overall CD8 T cell numbers are increased during this stage, the naive CD8 T cells are progressively lost and fall in parallel with overall CD4 T cell counts. In addition, we show that naive CD4 T cells are preferentially lost as total CD4 cell counts(More)
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is widely used as a reporter gene in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, the fluorescence levels of wild-type GFP (wtGFP) are not bright enough for fluorescence-activated cell sorting or flow cytometry. Several GFP variants were generated that are brighter or have altered excitation spectra when expressed in prokaryotic(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is common in HIV-infected individuals and is associated with impaired T cell function and impaired survival. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used to replenish GSH that has been depleted by acetaminophen overdose. Studies here test oral administration of NAC for safe and effective GSH replenishment in HIV infection. DESIGN(More)
In studies presented here, we demonstrate that antioxidants regulate NF-kappa B activation and signal transduction pathways leading to HIV expression. We show (1) that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and an efficient glutathione (GSH) precursor, inhibits NF-kappa B activation and HIV expression under conditions in which GSH is depleted and NAC(More)
Ferric enterobactin utilization by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis requires the BfeA outer membrane receptor. Under iron-depleted growth conditions, transcription of bfeA is activated by the BfeR regulator by a mechanism requiring the siderophore enterobactin. In this study, enterobactin-inducible bfeA transcription was shown to be TonB(More)
Studies presented here show that altering the intracellular redox balance by decreasing glutathione levels profoundly affects early signal transduction events in human T cells. In a T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling model, short-term pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine, which specifically decreases intracellular glutathione, essentially abrogates the(More)
The heterodimeric structure of factor VIII was demonstrated by two approaches. First, the native molecular weights of several partially purified fractions of factor VIII were determined by measurement of Stokes radii and sedimentation coefficients to be approx. 237 500, 201 000 and 141 000. These measured molecular weights correlated with those derived from(More)