Mark Stephen Litaker

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BACKGROUND Stroke, especially cerebral infarction, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell disease. Primary prevention of stroke by transfusion therapy may be feasible if there is a way to identify the patients at greatest risk. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography can measure flow velocity in the large intracranial(More)
Gross analyses of large brain areas, as in MRI studies of macroanatomical structures, average subtle alterations in small regions, inadvertently missing significant anomalies. We developed a computerized imaging program to microscopically examine minicolumns and used it to study Nissl-stained slides of normal human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains in a(More)
Stroke is an important complication of sickle cell disease. Stroke prediction is clinically important because it offers the possibility of primary prevention. In 1992, transcranial Doppler (TCD) evidence of elevated intracranial internal carotid or middle cerebral artery velocity was demonstrated to be associated strongly with an increased risk of ischemic(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about how the intensity of exercise influences cardiovascular fitness and body composition, especially in obese adolescents. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to determine the effects of physical training intensity on the cardiovascular fitness, percentage of body fat (%BF), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese adolescents. DESIGN(More)
Our study performed a quantitative investigation of minicolumns in the planum temporale (PT) of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains. This analysis distinguished minicolumns in the human cortex from those of the other nonhuman primates. Human cell columns are larger, contain more neuropil space, and pack more cells into the core area of the column(More)
INTRODUCTION Health communication interventions have been modestly effective for increasing informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men; however, knowledge and informed decision making is still questionable even with screening. Church-based programs may be more effective if they are spiritually based in nature. (More)
PURPOSE Children with high levels of total body fat mass (TFM) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have elevated levels of certain risk factors for coronary artery disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We tested the hypothesis that controlled physical training, without dietary intervention, would have a favorable impact on VAT and percent body(More)
We compared, in 9-11-y-old children (n=43), three measures of body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), skinfold thickness, and bioimpedance analysis (BIA). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman procedure, and Spearman rank correlation were used to determine test-retest reliabilities of the three methods and to compare(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of exercise training (ET) on components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in obese children. DESIGN Randomized, modified cross-over study, with subjects assigned to one of two conditions: (1) 4 months of ET followed by 4 months of no-ET; or (2) 4 months of no-ET followed by 4 months of ET. Measurements were made at(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of an abbreviated Reid Colposcopic Index (RCI) to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 during the National Cancer Institute (NCI) ASCUS LSIL Triage Study (ALTS). STUDY DESIGN Colposcopists from 4 ALTS clinical centers indicated an RCI score after colposcopically(More)