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Optimal immune responses require both an antigen-specific and a co-stimulatory signal. The shared ligands B7-1 and B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells deliver the co-stimulatory signal through CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. Signalling through CD28 augments the T-cell response, whereas CTLA-4 signalling attenuates it. Numerous animal studies and recent clinical(More)
In plants, autophagy has been assigned 'pro-death' and 'pro-survival' roles in controlling programmed cell death associated with microbial effector-triggered immunity. The role of autophagy in basal immunity to virulent pathogens has not been addressed systematically, however. Using several autophagy-deficient (atg) genotypes, we determined the function of(More)
The family of calcium binding proteins called KChIPs associates with Kv4 family K(+) channels and modulates their biophysical properties. Here, using mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography, we explore the interaction between Kv4 subunits and KChIP1. Two regions in the Kv4.2 N terminus, residues 7-11 and 71-90, are necessary for KChIP1 modulation and(More)
In Escherichia coli, FtsZ, a homologue of eukaryotic tubulins, and ZipA, a membrane-anchored protein that binds to FtsZ, are two essential components of the septal ring structure that mediates cell division. Recent data indicate that ZipA is involved in the assembly of the ring by linking FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane and that the ZipA-FtsZ interaction(More)
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 initiates the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), mediators of the pathophysiology of asthma and arthritis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of human cPLA2 at 2.5 A. cPLA2 consists of an N-terminal calcium-dependent lipid-binding/C2 domain and a catalytic unit whose(More)
Unlike the situation in animals, the final morphology of the plant body is highly modulated by the environment. During Arabidopsis development, intrinsic factors provide the framework for basic patterning processes. CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII) transcription factors are involved in embryo, shoot and root patterning. During vegetative(More)
We have cloned the cDNA encoding human GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase, the first enzyme in the pathway converting GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. The message is expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined, and the cDNA complements Lec13, a Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line deficient in GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase activity. The human GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase(More)
BACKGROUND Transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptors are commonly used innate immune receptors in plants and animals but can also sense endogenous signals to regulate development. BAK1 is a plant LRR-receptor-like kinase (RLK) that interacts with several ligand-binding LRR-RLKs to positively regulate their functions. BAK1 is involved in(More)
This study was designed to document quantitatively the sleep disturbances that occur after open heart surgery and to investigate a group of patients who underwent a thoracic surgical procedure not involving cardiopulmonary bypass. Nine patients were studied, six after open heart surgery and three after partial or complete pneumonectomy. In each patient,(More)
We have developed a system for probing protein/protein interactions which makes use of the bacterial flagellum to display random peptide libraries on the surface of E. coli. In developing the system the entire coding sequence of E. coli thioredoxin (trxA) was inserted into a dispensable region of the gene for flagellin (fliC), the major structural component(More)