Mark Spear

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HIV fusion and entry into CD4 T cells are mediated by two receptors, CD4 and CXCR4. This receptor requirement can be abrogated by pseudotyping the virion with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that mediates viral entry through endocytosis. The VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV is highly infectious for transformed cells, although the virus circumvents(More)
Almost all viral pathogens utilize a cytoskeleton for their entry and intracellular transport. In HIV-1 infection, binding of the virus to blood resting CD4 T cells initiates a temporal course of cortical actin polymerization and depolymerization, a process mimicking the chemotactic response initiated from chemokine receptors. The actin depolymerization has(More)
For an infecting viral pathogen, the actin cortex inside the host cell is the first line of intracellular components that it encounters. Viruses devise various strategies to actively engage or circumvent the actin structure. In this regard, the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) exemplifies command of cellular processes to take control of actin dynamics(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects helper CD4(+) T cells, and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion and immunodeficiency. In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in antiretroviral therapy, and the disease has become manageable. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is still nowhere in sight, and a cure or a functional cure awaits(More)
Operating systems represent large pieces of complex software that are carefully tested and broadly deployed. Despite this, developers frequently have little more than their source code to understand how they behave. This static representation of a system results in limited insight into execution dynamics, such as what code is important, how data flows(More)
As hardware parallelism continues to increase, CPU caches can no longer be considered as a transparent, hardware-level performance optimization. Cache impact on performance, in particular in the face of false sharing, is completely dependent on the software that is executing. To effectively support parallel workloads on cache coherent hardware, the(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiates receptor signaling and early actin dynamics during viral entry. This process is required for viral infection of primary targets such as resting CD4 T cells. WAVE2 is a component of a multiprotein complex linking receptor signaling to dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. WAVE2 directly(More)
As a fundamental component of the host cellular cytoskeleton, actin is routinely engaged by infecting viruses. Furthermore, viruses from diverse groups, and infecting diverse hosts, have convergently evolved an array of mechanisms for manipulating the actin cytoskeleton for efficacious infection. An ongoing chorus of research now indicates that the actin(More)
Recent studies have suggested that a functional cure for HIV-1 infection, purportedly resultant from allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, may be possible. Additionally, the first such patient was treated with whole-body irradiation, immunosuppressants, and the chemotherapeutic, cytarabine. However, the precise role of the coinciding medical interventions(More)
Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a lasting challenge to virus eradication. To develop a strategy complementary to HAART, we constructed a series of Rev-dependent lentiviral vectors carrying diphtheria toxin A chain (DT-A) and its attenuated mutants, as well as human tumor necrosis(More)