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African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large(More)
  • J Peter W Young, Lisa C Crossman, Andrew WB Johnston, Nicholas R Thomson, Zara F Ghazoui, Katherine H Hull +26 others
  • 2006
BACKGROUND Rhizobium leguminosarum is an alpha-proteobacterial N2-fixing symbiont of legumes that has been the subject of more than a thousand publications. Genes for the symbiotic interaction with plants are well studied, but the adaptations that allow survival and growth in the soil environment are poorly understood. We have sequenced the genome of R.(More)
Although meta-analyses are typically viewed as retrospective activities, they are increasingly being applied prospectively to provide up-to-date evidence on specific research questions. When meta-analyses are updated account should be taken of the possibility of false-positive findings due to repeated significance tests. We discuss the use of sequential(More)
BACKGROUND Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A(More)
The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies(More)
  • Paul Wilkinson, Nicholas R Waterfield, Lisa Crossman, Craig Corton, Maria Sanchez-Contreras, Isabella Vlisidou +14 others
  • 2009
BACKGROUND The Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) has been recovered from human infections in both North America and Australia. Recently, Pa has been shown to have a nematode vector that can also infect insects, like its sister species the insect pathogen P. luminescens (Pl). To understand the relationship between pathogenicity to insects(More)
BACKGROUND Risk factors such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol are used, with age, in screening for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The value of using these risk factors with age compared with using age alone is not known. We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed protozoan parasite that can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals and humans. Despite the existence of a sexual phase in the life cycle, T. gondii has an unusual population structure dominated by three clonal lineages that predominate in North America and Europe, (Types I, II, and III). These lineages were(More)
OBJECTIVES  To assess the association between maternal glucose concentrations and adverse perinatal outcomes in women without gestational or existing diabetes and to determine whether clear thresholds for identifying women at risk of perinatal outcomes can be identified. DESIGN  Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and control(More)
Heterogeneity in meta-analysis is most commonly estimated using a moment-based approach described by DerSimonian and Laird. However, this method has been shown to produce biased estimates. Alternative methods to estimate heterogeneity include the restricted maximum likelihood approach and those proposed by Paule and Mandel, Sidik and Jonkman, and Hartung(More)