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A fundamental question in cancer biology is whether cells with tumorigenic potential are common or rare within human cancers. Studies on diverse cancers, including melanoma, have indicated that only rare human cancer cells (0.1-0.0001%) form tumours when transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. However, the(More)
The identification and characterization of cancer stem cells might lead to more effective treatments for some cancers by focusing therapy on the most malignant cells. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to determine which cancers follow a cancer stem cell model and which do not, to address technical issues related to tumorigenesis assays, and to test(More)
Supplementary table 1. Melanomas from 17 of 19 patients tested grew in immunocompromised mice and could almost always be serially passaged. 7 of 9 tumors (patients 193 – 214 and 308 – 376) obtained directly from patients were successfully established in NOD/SCID mice. All of the 10 tumors obtained directly from patients that were initially injected into(More)
New therapies are required for melanoma. Here, we report that multiple cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin and digoxin, are significantly more toxic to human melanoma cells than normal human cells. This reflects on-target inhibition of the ATP1A1 Na(+)/K(+) pump, which is highly expressed by melanoma. MEK inhibitor and/or BRAF inhibitor additively or(More)
Desmogleins (DSG) are a family of cadherin adhesion proteins that were first identified in desmosomes and provide cardiomyocytes and epithelial cells with the junctional stability to tolerate mechanical stress. However, one member of this family, DSG2, is emerging as a protein with additional biological functions on a broader range of cells. Here we reveal(More)
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