Mark S Schreiner

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C hildren undergo a preoperative fast in an attempt to minimize the fluid and solid food component of gastric contents. The importance of a preoperative fast was acknowledged early in the evolution of anesthesia as a discipline of medicine. In response to concerns about the aspiration of gastric contents, a prolonged fast presumably came into vogue. With(More)
Fifty-seven patients with infant botulism were cared for at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1976 and 1987. The ages of the children ranged from 18 days to slightly more than 7 months. The average duration of hospitalization was 44 +/- 34 days, with the average intensive care unit stay lasting 29 +/- 25 days (54 of 57 patients). The majority(More)
The ability to drink clear liquids without vomiting after anesthesia and surgery is a commonly used criteria for discharge of pediatric day surgery patients. We hypothesized that the ability to drink as a prerequisite for discharge would not affect the frequency of vomiting, delay discharge, or increase the frequency of readmission of children for(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically compare standards for compensation and child participant assent in informed permission, assent, and consent forms (IP-A-CFs) approved by 55 local institutional review boards (IRBs) reviewing 3 standardized multicenter research protocols. METHOD Sixty-nine principal investigators participating in any of 3 national, multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND Laryngospasm is the most frequently reported respiratory complication associated with upper respiratory infection and general anesthesia in retrospective studies, but prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any increase in risk. METHODS A case-control study was performed to examine whether children with laryngospasm were more likely to(More)
The preoperative fast is often an unpleasant preoperative experience that might be alleviated by allowing children to drink clear liquids. The authors compared gastric fluid volume and pH in two groups of children, one of whom was permitted clear liquids until 2 h before surgery (study group) and the other followed routine preoperative fasting orders(More)
BACKGROUND Lung growth in children is associated with dramatic increases in the number and surface area of alveolated airways. Modelling studies have shown the slope of the alveolar plateau (phase III) is sensitive to the total cross-sectional area of these airways. Therefore, the influence of age and body size on the phase III slope of the volumetric(More)
We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67%(More)
The recent liberalization of preoperative feeding orders in healthy pediatric outpatients prompts the question of whether this applies to children about to have cardiac surgery. The authors compared gastric fluid volume and pH in two groups of children undergoing elective cardiac surgery, one of which was not only permitted ad libitum clear liquids but was(More)