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Human enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) are the major cause of aseptic meningitis and also cause a wide range of other acute illnesses, including neonatal sepsis-like disease, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. The neutralization assay is usually used for enterovirus typing, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming and(More)
Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been identified by serum neutralization, but the molecular determinants of the serotypes are unknown. Since the picornavirus VP1 protein contains a number of neutralization domains, we hypothesized that the VP1 sequence should correspond with neutralization (serotype) and, hence, with phylogenetic lineage. To test(More)
In March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length and has 11 open reading(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular techniques are established as routine in virological laboratories and virus typing through (partial) sequence analysis is increasingly common. Quality assurance for the use of typing data requires harmonization of genotype nomenclature, and agreement on target genes, depending on the level of resolution required, and robustness of(More)
A reverse transcription-seminested PCR (RT-snPCR) assay was developed for the detection and identification of enterovirus (EV) RNA in clinical specimens. Three conserved protein motifs were identified by aligning the VP3 and VP1 sequences of prototype EV strains. Consensus degenerate primers were designed from a conserved VP3 motif and a distal VP1 motif(More)
BACKGROUND Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral illness commonly caused by coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 and enterovirus 71 infections. Recently, atypical HFMD has been reported in association with CV-A6, an uncommon enterovirus strain. OBJECTIVE We sought to describe the clinical features of atypical HFMD associated with CV-A6 infection and its(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides)(More)
Members of the family Picornaviridae are the most common viruses infecting humans, and species in several genera also infect a wide variety of other mammals. Picornaviruses have traditionally been classified by antigenic type, based on a serum neutralization assay. However, this method is time-consuming and labor-intensive, is sensitive to virus aggregation(More)
The 65 serotypes of human enteroviruses are classified into four species, Human enterovirus (HEV) A to D, based largely on phylogenetic relationships in multiple genome regions. The 3'-non-translated region of enteroviruses is highly conserved within a species but highly divergent between species. From this information, species-specific RT-PCR primers were(More)
The species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) in the family Picornaviridae consists of coxsackieviruses (CV) A2-A8, A10, A12, A14 and A16 and enterovirus 71. Complete genome sequences for the prototype strains of the 10 serotypes whose sequences were not represented in public databases have been determined and analysed in conjunction with previously available(More)