Every novel cooperative arrangement of mutually suspicious parties interacting electronically — every smart contract — effectively requires a new cryptographic protocol. However, if every new contract requires new cryptographic protocol design, our dreams of cryptographically enabled electronic commerce would be unreachable. Cryptographic protocol design is… (More)
The transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products from the flagellar tip is mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT) , which is essential for both flagellar assembly and maintenance . Large groups of IFT particles are moved from the flagellar base to the tip by kinesin-2, and smaller groups are returned to the base by cytoplasmic… (More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis.… (More)
Access control systems must be evaluated in part on how well they enable one to distribute the access rights needed for cooperation, while simultaneously limiting the propagation of rights which would create vulnerabilities. Analysis to date implicitly assumes access is controlled only by manipulating a system's protection state—the arrangement of the… (More)
It limits the damage a virus can do by using the operating system's own security mechanisms to enforce the Principle of Least Authority on individual applications.