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Every novel cooperative arrangement of mutually suspicious parties interacting electronically — every smart contract — effectively requires a new cryptographic protocol. However, if every new contract requires new cryptographic protocol design, our dreams of cryptographically enabled electronic commerce would be unreachable. Cryptographic protocol design is(More)
The transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products from the flagellar tip is mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT) , which is essential for both flagellar assembly and maintenance . Large groups of IFT particles are moved from the flagellar base to the tip by kinesin-2, and smaller groups are returned to the base by cytoplasmic(More)
Browsers do not currently support the secure sharing of JavaScript objects between principals. We present this problem as the need for object views, which are consistent and controllable versions of objects. Multiple views can be made for the same object and customized for the recipients. We implement object views with a JavaScript library that wraps shared(More)
JavaScript is widely used to provide client-side functionality in Web applications. To provide services ranging from maps to advertisements , Web applications may incorporate untrusted JavaScript code from third parties. The trusted portion of each application may then expose an API to untrusted code, interposing a reference monitor that mediates access to(More)
Proxies are a powerful approach to implement meta-objects in object-oriented languages without having to resort to metacircular interpretation. We introduce such a meta-level API based on proxies for Javascript. We simultaneously introduce a set of design principles that characterize such APIs in general, and compare similar APIs of other languages in terms(More)
Access control systems must be evaluated in part on how well they enable one to distribute the access rights needed for cooperation, while simultaneously limiting the propagation of rights which would create vulnerabilities. Analysis to date implicitly assumes access is controlled only by manipulating a system's protection state—the arrangement of the(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis.(More)