Mark S Michaels

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Despite the potential for deleterious (even fatal) effects on cardiac physiology, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) abuse abounds driven mainly by its euphoric effects. Acute exposure to MDMA has profound cardiovascular effects on blood pressure and heart rate in humans and animals. To determine the effects of MDMA on cardiac metabolites in(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain and is primarily responsible for modulating excitatory tone. Clinical neuroimaging studies show decreased GABA levels in the anterior cingulate of patients with mood disorders, including major depressive disorder. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is an animal(More)
In animals, repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reduces markers of serotonergic activity and studies show similar serotonergic deficits in human MDMA users. Using proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 11.7Tesla, we measured the metabolic neurochemical profile in intact, discrete tissue punches taken from(More)
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