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This study investigated the continuity in being a bully, victim, or bully-victim from elementary school through college in 119 undergraduates. Of 25 who bullied in college, 18 (72%) had been bullied in high school and elementary school. Of 26 bullies in college, 14 (53.8%) had been bullies in high school and elementary school. Of 12 bully-victims in… (More)
This study explored bullying in college by students and teachers. The reports of a sample of 1,025 undergraduates indicated that 24.7% had seen students bully other students occasionally and 2.8% very frequently, 5% had been bullied by students occasionally and 1.1% very frequently, 12.8% had seen teachers bully students occasionally and 1.9% very… (More)
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between different lighting conditions experienced during sleep in the first -two years of life and development of myopia after age two as reported retrospectively by parents in a total of 469 individuals, including 252 children aged 2-16 yr., and 217 adults aged 17-40 yr. There were no significant… (More)
This study explored the issue of whether status and power differences are expressed in the way men and women hold hands. It was hypothesized that men's hands would be upper in heterosexual handholding couples significantly more often than women's. Also, to explore the possibility that height differences of handholding partners might affect handholding… (More)
Sex differences in the way men and women hold hands were investigated in a series of six studies. Specifically, it was hypothesized that men would have the uppermost hand in male-female couples holding hands in public significantly more often than women. Also, the American couples observed in Study 1 were classified by height, those in Study 2 by age, those… (More)
This study investigated the frequency of public laughter in a total of 10,419 children, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Females laughed significantly more than males, and younger people generally laughed more than older people.
Stress reduction associated with slow, deep, regular, diaphragmatic-abdominal respiration has been attributed to arousal reduction and to diversionary effects on the cognitive mediation of stress. Evidence was presented to show that verbal inner speech, self-talk, is a primary cognitive mediator of stress and that inner speech is associated with speech… (More)