Mark S Butler

Learn More
The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activation is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and(More)
The continued emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria is a major public health concern. The identification and development of new antibiotics, especially those with new modes of action, is imperative to help treat these infections. This review lists the 22 new antibiotics launched since 2000 and details the two first-in-class antibiotics, fidaxomicin (1)(More)
There is growing global recognition that the continued emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a serious threat to human health. Action plans released by the World Health Organization and governments of the UK and USA in particular recognize that discovering new antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of action, is one essential element(More)
There has been intensive effort to identify in vivo biomarkers that can be used to monitor drug-induced kidney damage and identify injury before significant impairment occurs. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and human macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) have been validated as urinary and plasma(More)
Glycopeptide antibiotics have been a key weapon in the fight against bacterial infections for over half a century, with the progenitors, vancomycin (1) and teicoplanin (2), still used extensively. The increased occurrence of resistance and the effectiveness of these 'last resort' treatments for Gram-positive infections has led to the discovery and clinical(More)
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is one of the most critical medical problems currently facing humankind, which will only get worse if no new antibacterial drugs are launched. This article will first review commonly used screening strategies used to identify potential new antibiotics and then discuss novel screening methods. In addition, new(More)
OBJECTIVES Combination therapy is an important option in the fight against Gram-negative 'superbugs'. This study systematically investigated bacterial killing and the emergence of polymyxin resistance with polymyxin B and chloramphenicol combinations used against New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS Four(More)
Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2(More)
Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised populations worldwide. To address the current paucity of antifungal therapeutic agents, further research into fungal-specific drug targets is required. Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) is a crucial enzyme in the adeosine(More)
There is significant clinical need for new antifungal agents to manage infections with pathogenic species such as Cryptococcus neoformans Because the purine biosynthesis pathway is essential for many metabolic processes, such as synthesis of DNA and RNA and energy generation, it may represent a potential target for developing new antifungals. Within this(More)