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BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) of houses provide effective malaria transmission control. There is conflicting evidence about whether it is more beneficial to provide both interventions in combination. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether the combination provides added(More)
Parasite clearance data from 18,699 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative in areas of low (n=14,539), moderate (n=2077), and high (n=2083) levels of malaria transmission across the world were analyzed to determine the factors that affect clearance rates and identify a simple in vivo screening measure for artemisinin(More)
Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are commonly used as a means of personal protection from malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have special treatments intended to remain effective after many washes. The present trials assessed the efficacy and wash-resistance of several production(More)
Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica appears to be an emerging disease in parts of north-east Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan. Timargara, an Afghan refugee camp of 17 years' standing, in the district of Dir, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, experienced a major outbreak of CL in 1997 for the first time. As part of the(More)
The development of insecticide resistance is a threat to the control of malaria in Africa. We report the findings of a national survey carried out in Tanzania in 2011 to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and DDT insecticides, and compare these findings with those identified in 2004 and 2010. Standard(More)
After two decades of war and conflict in Afghanistan, the public-health system is in disarray and malaria has re-emerged as a major disease, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria becoming increasingly common. The limited healthcare services that are available are mainly delivered by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with the Ministry of Health.(More)
Few new insecticides have been produced for control of disease vectors for public health in developing countries over the past three decades, owing to market constraints, and the available insecticides are often poorly deployed. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium will address these market failures by developing a portfolio of chemical and(More)
Because free-insecticide treated net distribution is planned in Benin (West Africa) during the next few years, we investigated the type, frequency and distribution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in four localities selected on the basis of contrasting agricultural practices, use of insecticides(More)