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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
All cancers carry somatic mutations. A subset of these somatic alterations, termed driver mutations, confer selective growth advantage and are implicated in cancer development, whereas the remainder are passengers. Here we have sequenced the genomes of a malignant melanoma and a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same person, providing the first(More)
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP or Duncan disease) is characterized by extreme sensitivity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), resulting in a complex phenotype manifested by severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma. We have identified a gene, SH2D1A, that is mutated in XLP patients and encodes a(More)
The molecular pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is poorly understood. Whole-genome and exome sequencing followed by innovative tumorgraft analyses (to accurately determine mutant allele ratios) identified several putative two-hit tumor suppressor genes, including BAP1. The BAP1 protein, a nuclear deubiquitinase, is inactivated in 15% of clear cell(More)
X chromosome inactivation in female mammals results in dosage compensation of X-linked gene products between the sexes. In humans there is evidence that a substantial proportion of genes escape from silencing. We have carried out a large-scale analysis of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from four human populations to determine the extent to(More)
We demonstrate here the importance of interleukin signalling pathways in cognitive function and the normal physiology of the CNS. Thorough investigation of an MRX critical region in Xp22.1-21.3 enabled us to identify a new gene expressed in brain that is responsible for a non-specific form of X-linked mental retardation. This gene encodes a 696 amino acid(More)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by relapse after treatment and chemotherapy resistance. Similarly, in other malignancies leukemia cells accumulate mutations during growth, forming heterogeneous cell populations that are subject to Darwinian selection and may respond differentially to treatment. There is therefore a clinical need to monitor(More)
The genomic landscape of breast cancer is complex, and inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity are important challenges in treating the disease. In this study, we sequence 173 genes in 2,433 primary breast tumours that have copy number aberration (CNA), gene expression and long-term clinical follow-up data. We identify 40 mutation-driver (Mut-driver) genes,(More)
Previous studies of the pericentromeric region of the human X chromosome short arm (Xp) revealed an age gradient from ancient DNA that contains expressed genes to recent human-specific DNA at the functional centromere. We analyzed the finished sequence of this human genomic region to investigate its evolutionary history. Phylogenetic analysis of >1,500(More)