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As a step toward the goal of adding the cattle genome to those available for multispecies comparative genome analysis, 40,224 cattle BAC clones were end-sequenced, yielding 60,547 sequences (BAC end sequences, BESs) after trimming with an average read length of 515 bp. Cattle BACs were anchored to the human and mouse genome sequences by BLASTN search,(More)
The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of(More)
The modification of transcriptional regulation has become increasingly appreciated as a major contributor to morphological evolution. However, the role of negative-acting control elements (e.g. silencers) in generating morphological diversity has been generally overlooked relative to positive-acting "enhancer" elements. The highly variable body coloration(More)
MOTIVATION The completion of human and mouse genome sequences provides a valuable resource for decoding other mammalian genomes. The comparative mapping by annotation and sequence similarity (COMPASS) strategy takes advantage of the resource and has been used in several genome-mapping projects. It uses existing comparative genome maps based on conserved(More)
The evolutionary origins of complex morphological structures such as the vertebrate eye or insect wing remain one of the greatest mysteries of biology. Recent comparative studies of gene expression imply that new structures are not built from scratch, but rather form by co-opting preexisting gene networks. A key prediction of this model is that upstream(More)
The origination and diversification of morphological characteristics represents a key problem in understanding the evolution of development. Morphological traits result from gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that form a web of transcription factors, which regulate multiple cis-regulatory element (CRE) sequences to control the coordinated expression of(More)
The molecular and genetic basis for the evolution of anatomical diversity is a major question that has inspired evolutionary and developmental biologists for decades. Because morphology takes form during development, a true comprehension of how anatomical structures evolve requires an understanding of the evolutionary events that alter developmental genetic(More)
Convergent evolution provides a type of natural replication that can be exploited to understand the roles of contingency and constraint in the evolution of phenotypes and the gene networks that control their development. For sex-specific traits, convergence offers the additional opportunity for testing whether the same gene networks follow different(More)
Structural and functional constraints are known to play a major role in restricting the path of evolution of protein activities. However, constraints acting on evolving transcriptional regulatory sequences, e.g. enhancers, are largely unknown. Recently, we elucidated how a novel expression pattern of the Neprilysin-1 (Nep1) gene in the optic lobe of(More)
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