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Parallel phenotypic evolution in similar environments has been well studied in evolutionary biology; however, comparatively little is known about the influence of determinism and historical contingency on the nature, extent and generality of this divergence. Taking advantage of a novel system containing multiple lake-stream stickleback populations, we(More)
Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence(More)
Divergent selection and adaptive divergence can increase phenotypic diversification amongst populations and lineages. Yet adaptive divergence between different environments, habitats or niches does not occur in all lineages. For example, the colonization of freshwater environments by ancestral marine species has triggered adaptive radiation and phenotypic(More)
Sexual dimorphism can evolve when males and females differ in phenotypic optima. Genetic constraints can, however, limit the evolution of sexual dimorphism. One possible constraint is derived from alleles expressed in both sexes. Because males and females share most of their genome, shared alleles with different fitness effects between sexes are faced with(More)
Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and(More)
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