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The assessment of angiogenesis in breast cancer is of importance as a key indicator of survival and response to therapy. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) measurements may provide a less subjective analysis than microvessel density (MVD) or immunohistochem-ical analysis of VEGF expression; however, most studies have used serum, which is(More)
Oestrogen receptor (ER) is used routinely to predict endocrine responsiveness in patients with breast cancer. A second ER, ERbeta has been described but its significance remains undefined; most studies have described mRNA levels rather than protein expression. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, immunohistochemical detection of ERbeta in archival(More)
BACKGROUND Decreases in length of stay (LOS) in hospital after breast cancer surgery can be partly attributed to the change to less radical surgery, but many other factors are operating at the patient, surgeon and hospital levels. This study aimed to describe the changes in and predictors of length of stay (LOS) in hospital after surgery for breast cancer(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether the regular use of alcohol hand gel was having a detrimental effect on hands of healthcare professionals and, if so, to what extent. The study also aimed to establish a link between individuals who felt their hands were suffering from persistent exposure to the gel and those who actively avoided using the gel. DESIGN A(More)
The calpains are a family of intracellular cysteine proteases that function in a variety of important cellular functions, including cell signalling, motility, apoptosis and survival. In early invasive breast cancer expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and their inhibitor, calpastatin, have been associated with clinical outcome and clinicopathological(More)
Breast conservation surgery is available to the vast majority of women with breast cancer. The combination of neoadjuvant therapies and oncoplastic surgical techniques allows even large tumours to be managed with a breast-conserving approach. The relationship between breast size and the volume of tissue to be excised determines the need for volume(More)
BACKGROUND Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia account for up to 25% of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Two percent of them are not accessible by standard cervical surgical approaches. Surgical resection has traditionally been performed via median sternotomy or thoracotomy and more recently, via video assisted thoracoscopic surgery(More)
Sir, The recent article by Montgomery et al (2007) has raised yet again the controversies regarding optimum duration and method of breast cancer follow-up. In fact, there has been little enthusiasm in adopting the 2002 National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines. The authors correctly questioned the basic assumptions behind these guidelines but(More)