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On the basis of previous ground-based and fly-by information, we knew that Titan's atmosphere was mainly nitrogen, with some methane, but its temperature and pressure profiles were poorly constrained because of uncertainties in the detailed composition. The extent of atmospheric electricity ('lightning') was also hitherto unknown. Here we report the(More)
The NOMAD instrument has been designed to best fulfil the science objectives of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission that will be launched in 2016. The instrument is a combination of three channels that cover the UV, visible and IR spectral ranges and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this series of two papers, we present the(More)
The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-permission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. We present an initial assessment of the atmospheric science that can be performed using sensors of the Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS), over and above the expected engineering(More)
The surface of Saturn's largest satellite--Titan--is largely obscured by an optically thick atmospheric haze, and so its nature has been the subject of considerable speculation and discussion. The Huygens probe entered Titan's atmosphere on 14 January 2005 and descended to the surface using a parachute system. Here we report measurements made just above and(More)
The Surface Science Package (SSP) consists of nine independent subsystems with the primary aim of characterising Titan's surface at the end of Huygens' descent through Titan's atmosphere in late 2004. In addition, many useful atmospheric measurements will be made during the descent phase. Seven of the subsystems are mounted inside or on the lower rim of a(More)
Superoxide dismutases catalyse the dismutation of highly reactive superoxide ions to produce hydrogen peroxide and several lines of evidence suggest that these enzymes play important roles in the development and response to treatment of human cancers. For example, Mn-containing superoxide dismutase is frequently overexpressed in various cancer types and can(More)
Copyright and Moral Rights for the articles on this site are retained by the individual authors and/or other copyright owners. For more information on Open Research Online's data policy on reuse of materials please consult the policies page. ABSTRACT JUICE, the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer, is a European Space Agency L-class mission destined for the Jovian(More)
In May 2014, the Rosetta spacecraft is scheduled to rendezvous with the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko ('67P'). One of the instruments on board the 'Lander' which will descend on to the surface of the comet is a miniaturised GC/MS system that incorporates an ion trap mass spectrometer, specially developed for isotope ratio analysis. This article describes the(More)
The Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission is constraining the origin of the dust particles detected within the coma of comet 67 P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P). The collected particles belong to two families: (i) compact particles (ranging in size from 0.03 to 1 mm), witnessing the presence of materials(More)
The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on(More)