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Females of the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) search for host nests in which to lay their eggs. Females normally return to lay a single egg from one to several days after first locating a potential host nest and lay up to 40 eggs in a breeding season. Male brown-headed cowbirds do not assist females in locating nests. We predicted(More)
The emergence or increased prevalence of various parasites may be linked to alterations in host-parasite interactions caused by environmental changes. We investigated prevalence of trematode infections in grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles from ponds in nonagricultural settings versus ponds adjacent to cornfields in southern Ontario. We found that(More)
Host race formation generates diversity within species and may even lead to speciation. This phenomenon could be particularly prevalent in the Acari due to the often intimate interaction these species have with their hosts. In this review, we explore the process of host race formation, whether it is likely to occur in this group and what features may favour(More)
Susceptibility of free-living infective stages of parasites to contaminants is relatively understudied compared with independent effects on measures of host health or immunity, but may be important in affecting prevalence and intensity of parasite infections. We investigated whether atrazine, an herbicide commonly used in North America, affected the(More)
For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to(More)
Agricultural activity and landscape features have previously been associated with diversity and prevalence of trematode species in amphibian second intermediate hosts. In this study, the density, diversity, and size of snail first intermediate hosts, and the diversity and prevalence of their trematode species, were assessed in 2 types of ponds, i.e., those(More)
Genetic studies have indicated that some parasite species formerly thought to be generalists are complexes of morphologically similar species, each appearing to specialize on different host species. Studies on such species are needed to obtain ecological and parasitological data to address whether there are fitness costs in parasitizing atypical host(More)
The effects of contaminants on multispecies interactions can be difficult to predict. The herbicide atrazine is commonly used in North America for corn crops, runs off into wetlands, and has been implicated in the increasing susceptibility of larval frogs to trematode parasites. Using experimental challenges with free-living stages of trematodes(More)
The digestive tracts of 771 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) collected from January to May 1983 from 12 locations (27 samples) were examined for helminth parasites to determine whether parasite species present in wintering geese or in spring migrants occurred independently of each other. Nine helminth species were identified. Seven had mean prevalences(More)
Using field surveys and histological methods, we show that a dragonfly species (Sympetrum internum) has an effective resistance, not seen previously in other odonates, to a mite parasite (Arrenurus planus). This mite is a generalist parasite known to effectively engorge on several other odonate species. We argue that selection is likely weak, favouring(More)