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Females of the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) search for host nests in which to lay their eggs. Females normally return to lay a single egg from one to several days after first locating a potential host nest and lay up to 40 eggs in a breeding season. Male brown-headed cowbirds do not assist females in locating nests. We predicted(More)
For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to(More)
Closely related host species are known to show variation in the level of resistance towards the same or similar parasite species, but this phenomenon is understudied. Such studies are important for understanding the ecological factors that might promote susceptibility or resistance to parasites: in particular, whether one host species is a larger target of(More)
Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this(More)
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or 'markers') might provide insights into possible intervention(More)
The damselfly, Nehalennia irene (Hagen), has two distinct female colour morphs. Individuals of one morph have male-like colouration and pattern (androchromes), whereas gynochromes are different from males and androchromes in these respects. In several damselflies, such female-limited polychromatism is attributable to a single genetic locus. We developed six(More)
Host race formation generates diversity within species and may even lead to speciation. This phenomenon could be particularly prevalent in the Acari due to the often intimate interaction these species have with their hosts. In this review, we explore the process of host race formation, whether it is likely to occur in this group and what features may favour(More)
BACKGROUND Insects can resist parasites using the costly process of melanotic encapsulation. This form of physiological resistance has been studied under laboratory conditions, but the abiotic and biotic factors affecting resistance in natural insect populations are not well understood. Mite parasitism of damselflies was studied in a temperate damselfly(More)
Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) males and females entered precopula assortatively by size in the laboratory; large males also had a pairing advantage over smaller males. We investigated the causes of such nonrandom pairing to test hypotheses on size-assortative mating.We found precopulatory biases with respect to male size in the absence of direct competition(More)
Host–parasite interactions are characterised by a lack of stable species-specific traits that limits generalisations one can make even about particular host or parasite species. For instance, the virulence, life history traits or transmission mode of a given parasite species can depend on which of its suitable hosts it infects. In the search for general(More)