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Hydroxyl radical footprinting can probe the solvent accessibility of the ribose moiety of the individual nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Semi-automated analytical tools are presented for the quantitative analyses of nucleic acid footprint transitions in which processes such as folding or ligand binding are followed as a function of time or ligand concentration.(More)
G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane alpha-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A(2A)-adenosine, beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic(More)
Candida biofilms formed on indwelling medical devices are increasingly associated with severe infections. In this study, we used proteomics and Western and Northern blotting analyses to demonstrate that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is downregulated in Candida biofilms. Disruption of ADH1 significantly (P = 0.0046) enhanced the ability of Candida albicans to(More)
Radiolysis of water with a synchrotron x-ray beam permits the hydroxyl radical-accessible surface of an RNA to be mapped with nucleotide resolution in 10 milliseconds. Application of this method to folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme revealed that the most stable domain of the tertiary structure, P4-P6, formed cooperatively within 3 seconds. Exterior(More)
Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved(More)
The precise molecular etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown; however recent research indicates that several interconnected aberrant pathways and molecular abnormalities are contributors to OSA. Identifying the genes and pathways associated with OSA can help to expand our understanding of the risk factors for the disease as well as provide new(More)
Sequences up to several megabases in length have been found to be present in individual genomes but absent in the human reference genome. These sequences may be common in populations, and their absence in the reference genome may indicate rare variants in the genomes of individuals who served as donors for the human genome project. As the reference genome(More)
In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate decision-making, we describe a consensus 'what to try first' strategy based on our collective analysis of the expression and purification of over 10,000 different proteins. This review presents methods that(More)
Counterions are required for RNA folding, and divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) are often critical. To dissect the role of counterions, we have compared global and local folding of wild-type and mutant variants of P4-P6 RNA derived from the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme in monovalent and in divalent metal ions. A remarkably simple picture of the folding(More)
Emerging evidence indicates that gene products implicated in human cancers often cluster together in "hot spots" in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Additionally, small sub-networks within PPI networks that demonstrate synergistic differential expression with respect to tumorigenic phenotypes were recently shown to be more accurate classifiers of(More)