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Hydroxyl radical footprinting can probe the solvent accessibility of the ribose moiety of the individual nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Semi-automated analytical tools are presented for the quantitative analyses of nucleic acid footprint transitions in which processes such as folding or ligand binding are followed as a function of time or ligand concentration.(More)
G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane alpha-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A(2A)-adenosine, beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic(More)
Candida biofilms formed on indwelling medical devices are increasingly associated with severe infections. In this study, we used proteomics and Western and Northern blotting analyses to demonstrate that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is downregulated in Candida biofilms. Disruption of ADH1 significantly (P = 0.0046) enhanced the ability of Candida albicans to(More)
Radiolysis of water with a synchrotron x-ray beam permits the hydroxyl radical-accessible surface of an RNA to be mapped with nucleotide resolution in 10 milliseconds. Application of this method to folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme revealed that the most stable domain of the tertiary structure, P4-P6, formed cooperatively within 3 seconds. Exterior(More)
To verify the genome annotation and to create a resource to functionally characterize the proteome, we attempted to Gateway-clone all predicted protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs), or the 'ORFeome,' of Caenorhabditis elegans. We successfully cloned approximately 12,000 ORFs (ORFeome 1.1), of which roughly 4,000 correspond to genes that are untouched(More)
NF-kappaB, a central coordinator of immune and inflammatory responses, must be tightly regulated. We describe a NF-kappaB regulatory pathway that is driven by reversible lysine methylation of the p65 subunit, carried out by a lysine methylase, the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain-containing protein 1 (NSD1), and a lysine demethylase, F-box and(More)
All retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins contain one or two copies of an invariant 3Cys-1His array (CCHC = C-X2-C-X4-H-X4-C; C = Cys, H = His, X = variable amino acid) that are essential for RNA genome packaging and infectivity and have been proposed to function as zinc-binding domains. Although the arrays are capable of binding zinc in vitro, the(More)
Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved(More)
Potassium channels are dynamic proteins that undergo large conformational changes to regulate the flow of K(+) ions across the cell membrane. Understanding the gating mechanism of these channels therefore requires methods for probing channel structure in both their open and closed conformations. Radiolytic footprinting is used to study the gating mechanism(More)
Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) can cleave the phosphodiester backbone of nucleic acids and are valuable reagents in the study of nucleic acid structure and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Irradiation of solutions by high flux "white light" X-ray beams based on bending magnet beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) yields sufficient(More)