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OBJECTIVE The brain circuitry of opiate craving was investigated with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). METHOD Twelve abstinent opiate-dependent subjects listened to audiotaped autobiographical scripts of an episode of craving and a neutral episode while undergoing a PET scan with the tracer [(15)O]H(2)O.(More)
The importance of the opioid receptor system in substance dependence is increasingly recognised. We used PET with the non-selective tracer [11C]diprenorphine to examine opioid receptor binding in early abstinence from alcohol dependence and the relationship to craving. We recruited 11 alcohol dependent patients and 13 controls. Subjects underwent one(More)
The final common pathway of addiction (the dopamine hypothesis of reward) has recently been evolving, with the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system now seen as key to natural rewards and drug-seeking behaviour, though perhaps having less of a role in the maintenance of such behaviour. The perception of a common pathway has meant that treatments for one(More)
We investigated the functional connectivity of brain regions activated during opiate craving. Previously we used recorded autobiographical scripts to induce opiate craving in 12 abstinent opiate-dependent subjects while they were undergoing positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) tracer H2 15O. SPM99 was(More)
BACKGROUND Drugs of dependence cause dopamine release in the rat striatum. Human neuroimaging studies have shown an increase in dopamine in the equivalent region in response to stimulants and other drugs. AIMS We tested whether opioids provoke dopamine release and its relationship to the subjective experience. METHOD In two combined studies 14 heroin(More)
The aim of this study was to make a comparison of brain structure between a group of opioid-dependent subjects and healthy controls. We report the results of an ;optimized' voxel-based morphometry study on a sample of nine opioid-dependent subjects with no comorbid substance misuse disorders versus 21 healthy controls. We found a significant reduction in(More)
Addiction provides fertile ground for the application of the tools of functional neuroimaging. They can be divided into studies of neural activity and neurotransmitter function. Using the former, both opiates and stimulants cause a global decrease in brain metabolism. Against this background, acute doses have still been shown to produce relative increases(More)
Craving is a commonly used term to describe an intense desire for a substance or behaviour; however, its underlying neurobiology is not fully characterized. We have successfully used a cue exposure paradigm with functional neuro-imaging (H2 15O PET; PET, positron emission tomography) in abstinent opiate addicts. This study showed that salient cue exposure(More)
Substitute methadone prescribing is one of the main modes of treatment for opioid dependence with established evidence for improved health and social outcomes. However, the pharmacology underpinning the effects of methadone is little studied despite controversies about dosing in relation to outcome. We therefore examined the relationship between methadone(More)
Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist that is being increasingly used in clinical practice in the treatment of opioid dependence in the UK, USA, and, elsewhere. Its unique pharmacological properties mean it is a relatively safe drug, it can be given by alternate day dispensing, and it is associated with relatively mild symptoms on withdrawal.(More)