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OBJECTIVES To determine rates of major limb amputation in U.S. military casualties in the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, to correlate these with mechanism of injury, and compare the rate with that seen in U.S. casualties from the Vietnam War. DESIGN Retrospective study of all U.S. casualties recorded for the current conflicts from the start in(More)
Trauma care for military personnel injured in Iraq has become increasingly sophisticated. There are five levels, or echelons, of care, each progressively more advanced. Level I care provides immediate first aid at the front line. Level II care consists of surgical resuscitation provided by highly mobile forward surgical teams that directly support combatant(More)
BACKGROUND Evaluating residency programs requires objective assessment tools, but few are readily available. The purpose of this study was to measure education by correlating resident test scores with several measurements of educator performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study group included residents and educators from a single residency program. We(More)
The combined effects of cyanide ( C N ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on living tissue are unknown. Many of the interactions of CN with cellular enzymes including its high affinity binding to cytochrome oxidase have been known for a number of years [1]. The enzyme-CN complex achieved cannot be reduced, resulting in a blockage of electron transport and almost(More)
For patients with suspected flexor tenosynovitis, the mainstay of diagnosis is a thorough history and physical examination. The examination is guided by evaluating the patient for Kanavel's four cardinal signs. Empiric antibiotics should be started immediately on diagnosis covering skin flora and gram-negative bacteria. Typically, surgery is required.(More)
Atypical infections of the hand are caused by organisms such as Mycobacterium, fungi, and viruses, and often do not respond to conventional management. They exist within a wide spectrum of presentations, ranging from cutaneous lesions to deep infections such as tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis. Having a high clinical suspicion for atypical hand infections is(More)
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