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BACKGROUND Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial damage in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. (More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on adhesion of human monocytes to human endothelial cells and to measure the effect of L-arginine and vitamin C supplementation on this interaction. BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking has been associated with abnormal endothelial function and increased leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, both(More)
BACKGROUND Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA), measured with external vascular ultrasound, has been widely used in clinical trials as a surrogate marker for coronary atherosclerosis. Despite this, the degree of correlation between carotid IMT and the extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) is not known. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to examine whether endothelial function is impaired in the large vessels of asymptomatic young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes and whether endothelial dysfunction is related to duration or control of diabetes, small-vessel disease or other vascular risk factors. BACKGROUND Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in atherogenesis, yet most clinical trials with antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, have failed to protect against atherosclerotic diseases. A striking exception is probucol, which retards atherosclerosis in carotid arteries and restenosis of coronary arteries after angioplasty. Because probucol has in vitro(More)
In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, oral L-arginine (the substrate for endothelium derived nitric oxide) attenuates endothelial dysfunction and atheroma formation, but the effect in hypercholesterolemic humans is unknown. Using high resolution external ultrasound, we studied arterial physiology in 27 hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 29+/-5 (19-40) years,(More)
BACKGROUND Passive smoking is associated with early arterial damage, but the potential for reversibility of this damage is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the reversibility of arterial endothelial dysfunction, a key marker of early atherosclerosis. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS 60 healthy persons 15 to 39(More)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and is thought to be associated with increased oxidative stress, a contributor to atherogenesis. Surprisingly, however, there is little direct evidence that T2D-associated oxidative stress results in increased lipid oxidation and/or decreased antioxidant capacity in human atherosclerotic(More)
Male gender is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, and androgen administration has been associated with increased atherosclerosis in experimental animals. Since endothelial dysfunction is an important event in the atherogenic process, we hypothesized that androgen deprivation in adult men might be associated with enhanced arterial(More)
OBJECTIVES Our aim was to assess the effect of oral L-arginine on endothelial or platelet physiology in humans. BACKGROUND L-Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and in cholesterol-fed rabbits, oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation, inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces atheroma. In hypercholesterolemic humans,(More)