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OBJECTIVE The optimal diameter at which replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease is not known. METHODS We reviewed all patients with bicuspid aortic valves undergoing aortic valve replacement at our institution from 1979 through 1993 (n = 201). Patients undergoing concomitant replacement of the(More)
Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have(More)
Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that disrupt the open reading frame, while in frame mutations result in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is due to mutations affecting collagen VI genes. Specific muscle miRNAs (dystromirs) are potential(More)
Cloud computing is maturing, becoming a viable alternative to classic on-premise IT. Cloud facilitates scalability, promising lower fixed and variable costs while supporting enterprise growth. The scalability benefits and cost savings can be achieved through on-demand infrastructure provisioning and reduced on-premise energy consumption. The benefits are(More)
Software Engineering (SE) design approaches are traditionally based on concepts associated with the procedural and object-oriented SE paradigms, such as stepwise methods and techniques for abstraction, modularity and refinement of software functionality. In contrast, researchers in other engineering domains have developed theories of Intelligent Design (ID)(More)
A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and(More)
Information about prognosis can be applied to research design and is essential for patient care and counseling. Prognostic study data is only useful if it is valid, transparent, and applicable to your patient. Using a clinical scenario and a relevant study from the urological literature, we outline a method to appraise a prognostic article, understand the(More)
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