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An updated version of the spectral (bin) microphysics cloud model developed at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem [the Hebrew University Cloud Model (HUCM)] is described. The model microphysics is based on the solution of the equation system for size distribution functions of cloud hydrometeors of seven types (water drops, plate-, columnar-, and branch-like(More)
Despite significant advances in cloud physics, many problems exist in the state-of-the-art Ž . microphysical cloud modeling. The progress is hampered by 1 many remaining gaps and Ž . uncertainties in our knowledge of cloud microphysics and 2 limitations of numerical approaches in representing some of known microphysical processes. In this paper, we attempt(More)
We introduce a new mathematical tool for quantifying the symmetry contents of molecular structures: the Symmetry Operation Measures. In this approach, we measure the minimal distance between a given structure and the structure which is obtained after applying a selected symmetry operation on it. If the given operation is a true symmetry operation for the(More)
Distance functions serve for quantitative evaluation of the degree of similarity, shape content, symmetry, chirality, and so on. We have developed a general methodology and a general computational tool for the estimation of the value of the distance function and of the error in that estimation, which originates in the experimental uncertainty in the(More)
We provide analytical solutions of the Continuous Symmetry Measure (CSM) equation for several symmetry point-groups, and for the associated Continuous Chirality Measure (CCM), which are quantitative estimates of the degree of a symmetry-point group or chirality in a structure, respectively. We do it by solving analytically the problem of finding the minimal(More)
Particulate air pollution has been shown to strongly suppress precipitation from convective clouds over land. New observations show that precipitation from similar polluted clouds over oceans is much less affected, because large sea salt nuclei override the precipitation suppression effect of the large number of small pollution nuclei. Raindrops initiated(More)
The collision efficiencies of small cloud droplets are calculated in a turbulent flow. A flow w velocity field was generated using a model of isotropic turbulence Pinsky, M.B., Khain, A.P., 1995. A model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence flow and its application for simulation of cloud drop tracks. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 81, 33–55; Pinsky, M.B.,(More)
The web site, http://www.csm.huji.ac.il/, uses the Continuous Chirality Measure to evaluate quantitatively the degree of chirality of a molecule, a structure, a fragment. The value of this measure ranges from zero, the molecule is achiral, to higher values (the upper limit is 100); the higher the chirality value, the more chiral the molecule is. The measure(More)