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  • M J Penner
  • 1980
In general, the detectability of a signal preceded and followed by noise maskers is less than the prediction based on a simple addition of the effects of the maskers (i.e., an intensity sum). Data verifying and extending this finding were collected in a variety of conditions in which the two maskers either surrounded the signal in time or preceded it. These(More)
  • M J Penner
  • 1986
Ten patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus matched external tones to the tinnitus pitch. These matches were followed by magnitude estimates to measure the loudness function of tones at 1 kHz at the presumed tinnitus frequency (i.e., at the average frequency matching the pitch of the tinnitus), magnitude estimates of the tinnitus itself, and(More)
Two psychophysical methods, a method of adjustment (MOA) and a forced-choice double-staircase adaptive procedure (FCDS) (Jesteadt, 1980), were used to measure the predominant pitch and loudness of tinnitus for 11 subjects during one test session. The FCDS within-session variability of matches to tinnitus pitch was smaller than for the MOA and comparable to(More)
Sounds from the ear canal were measured and then analyzed off-line. A peak-picking algorithm located spectral maxima which might be designated as spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). The output from a 0.5-cc syringe, used to stimulate the volume of the ear canal, was also measured, analyzed and used to approximate the false-alarm rate of the(More)
  • M J Penner
  • 1980
Forward masking is the masking of a signal by a preceding masker. For normal observers, if two tones are employed as the forward masker, the addition of the second tone (which increases the masker energy) may make the signal easier to hear. This decrease in the masking effect (or unmasking) has been interpreted as evidence for lateral suppression in(More)
  • M J Penner
  • 1990
Prototypical experimental tests for linking spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with disruptive tinnitus have been described previously. Using similar experimental tests on 96 tinnitus sufferers, an estimate is made here of the prevalence of tinnitus caused by spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: the 95% confidence limits of this estimate are 1.11% and 9.05%.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke with no proven treatment to reduce brain injury. In this study we modeled ICH by injecting 100 microL of autologous blood into the striatum of rats. We then tested whether hypothermia would reduce brain injury and improve recovery as has been repeatedly observed for ischemic and traumatic brain damage.(More)
Mild hypothermia reduces injury in models of global and focal cerebral ischemia even when initiated after the insult. Neuroprotection depends critically upon the duration of hypothermia with longer treatments often being more efficacious. However, the ideal treatment duration is not known for most insults and this knowledge would facilitate clinical(More)