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Type 1 diabetes is a T-cell-mediated disease that is associated with loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. The mechanisms involved in maintenance of peripheral tolerance include a specialized subset of regulatory T-cells (Treg) within the CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell population, but the function and phenotype of these cells in type 1 diabetes have not(More)
OBJECTIVE CD4 T-cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. To address the relevance of such cells, we examined IL-17 secretion in response to β-cell autoantigens, IL-17A gene expression in islets, and the potential functional consequences of IL-17 release(More)
Human skin immune homeostasis, and its regulation by specialized subsets of tissue-residing immune sentinels, is poorly understood. In this study, we identify an immunoregulatory tissue-resident dendritic cell (DC) in the dermis of human skin that is characterized by surface expression of CD141, CD14, and constitutive IL-10 secretion (CD141(+) DDCs).(More)
OBJECTIVE Immune dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been widely but inconsistently reported. Traditional reviews of the literature have produced a variety of conclusions. We present the results of the first systematic review of the subject. METHODS EMBASE, MEDLINE and PSYCHINFO databases were searched, and leading researchers(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune condition caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor. Approximately 65% of cases present with psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychosis. It remains to be established whether anti-NMDA receptor antibodies can(More)
The T cell receptor (TCR) orchestrates immune responses by binding to foreign peptides presented at the cell surface in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Effective immunity requires that all possible foreign peptide-MHC molecules are recognized or risks leaving holes in immune coverage that pathogens could quickly evolve to(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes results from selective T-cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. In this process, islet epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cells play a pivotal role. Thus, monitoring of multiple islet-specific CD8(+) T-cells may prove to be valuable for measuring disease activity, progression, and intervention. Yet,(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence that chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease was sought, by studying cellular and humoral immune responses to peripheral nerve myelin proteins. METHODS 40 CIDP, 36 healthy control subjects (HC) and subjects with non-immune mediated neuropathies (other neuropathies, ON) for antibodies(More)
Recent studies have linked autoimmunity to nervous tissue structures and diabetic autonomic neuropathy, but data on the early stage of IDDM and on the natural history of this association are not available. For this reason, we investigated autonomic nervous function, and the presence of autoantibodies to sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous structures, to(More)
BACKGROUND Potential target autoantigens in the demyelinating form of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) include the myelin proteins PMP22, P0 and P2. METHODS We investigated immunoreactivity to P0, P2 and PMP22 proteins in 37 patients with GBS and 32 healthy controls. RESULTS Antibodies to PMP22 or P0 peptides were detected at presentation in only 5 out of(More)