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Human skin immune homeostasis, and its regulation by specialized subsets of tissue-residing immune sentinels, is poorly understood. In this study, we identify an immunoregulatory tissue-resident dendritic cell (DC) in the dermis of human skin that is characterized by surface expression of CD141, CD14, and constitutive IL-10 secretion (CD141(+) DDCs).(More)
OBJECTIVE CD4 T-cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. To address the relevance of such cells, we examined IL-17 secretion in response to β-cell autoantigens, IL-17A gene expression in islets, and the potential functional consequences of IL-17 release(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a T-cell-mediated disease that is associated with loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. The mechanisms involved in maintenance of peripheral tolerance include a specialized subset of regulatory T-cells (Treg) within the CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell population, but the function and phenotype of these cells in type 1 diabetes have not(More)
The aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is not known. However, it has been suggested that CFS may be associated with underlying immune activation resulting in a Th2-type response. We measured intracellular production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; type 1 cytokines), IL-4 (type 2) and IL-10 (regulatory) by both polyclonally(More)
During immune responses, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) process antigens and present peptide epitopes complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. CD4 cells recognize these naturally processed and presented epitopes (NPPEs) bound to HLA class II molecules. Epitope identification is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools for(More)
Immune-based therapies that prevent type 1 diabetes or preserve metabolic function remaining at diagnosis have become a major objective for funding agencies and international trial consortia, and receive backing from notable patient advocate groups. The development of immune-based therapeutic strategies in this arena requires a careful balancing of the(More)
It is established that veterans of the 1991 Gulf War have an increased frequency of experiencing multiple symptoms. The underlying mechanism of these ailments is unclear, although they do not correspond to any clearly defined syndrome. The most common symptoms overlap with those of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was recently associated with a novel(More)
Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells is a successful therapy for autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection in experimental models. In man, equivalent manipulations in bone marrow transplant recipients appear safe, but questions regarding the stability of the transferred regulatory T cells during inflammation(More)
The etiology and pathology of illnesses related to the first Persian Gulf War are unclear. Among the constellation of symptoms noted in sick veterans, some, such as skin rashes, musculoskeletal pains, and neuropsychiatric problems, have been proposed to reflect an underlying immune dysfunction. In this study we explored the hypothesis that sickness(More)
1. The effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on the accumulation of cyclic AMP have been investigated in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. 2. Adenosine A2-receptor stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP in cells prelabelled with [3H]-adenine. The rank order of agonist potencies was(More)