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Human skin immune homeostasis, and its regulation by specialized subsets of tissue-residing immune sentinels, is poorly understood. In this study, we identify an immunoregulatory tissue-resident dendritic cell (DC) in the dermis of human skin that is characterized by surface expression of CD141, CD14, and constitutive IL-10 secretion (CD141(+) DDCs).(More)
The final pathway of beta cell destruction leading to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and clinical type 1 diabetes is unknown. Here we show that circulating CTLs can kill beta cells via recognition of a glucose-regulated epitope. First, we identified 2 naturally processed epitopes from the human preproinsulin signal peptide by elution from HLA-A2(More)
According to the quality of response they mediate, autoreactive T cells recognizing islet beta cell peptides could represent both disease effectors in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and directors of tolerance in nondiabetic individuals or those undergoing preventative immunotherapy. A combination of the rarity of these cells, inadequate(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a T-cell-mediated disease that is associated with loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. The mechanisms involved in maintenance of peripheral tolerance include a specialized subset of regulatory T-cells (Treg) within the CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell population, but the function and phenotype of these cells in type 1 diabetes have not(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes results from selective T-cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. In this process, islet epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cells play a pivotal role. Thus, monitoring of multiple islet-specific CD8(+) T-cells may prove to be valuable for measuring disease activity, progression, and intervention. Yet,(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes results from an immunemediated destruction of beta-cells, likely to be mediated by T lymphocytes, but the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of validity of existing assays for islet autoreactive T-cells are not well established. Such assays are vital for monitoring responses to interventions that may modulate disease(More)
Improving T cell Ags by altering MHC anchor residues is a common strategy used to enhance peptide vaccines, but there has been little assessment of how such modifications affect TCR binding and T cell recognition. In this study, we use surface plasmon resonance and peptide-MHC tetramer binding at the cell surface to demonstrate that changes in primary(More)
Mannose binding protein (MBP) is a serum lectin which, upon binding to a carbohydrate extremity, acquires the ability to activate the classical complement pathway. MBP binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro via glycans on gp120 and thus, it may play a defensive role in HIV infection and contribute to virus clearance through the activation of(More)
The aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is not known. However, it has been suggested that CFS may be associated with underlying immune activation resulting in a Th2-type response. We measured intracellular production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; type 1 cytokines), IL-4 (type 2) and IL-10 (regulatory) by both polyclonally(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune condition caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor. Approximately 65% of cases present with psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychosis. It remains to be established whether anti-NMDA receptor antibodies can(More)