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BACKGROUND Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. METHODS In our retrospective cohort study,(More)
BACKGROUND Risks of most types of leukemia from exposure to acute high doses of ionizing radiation are well known, but risks associated with protracted exposures, as well as associations between radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are not clear. OBJECTIVES We estimated relative risks of CLL and non-CLL from protracted exposures to low-dose(More)
he accomplishments of this Programme inspire all of us in public health to dream big dreams. It shows we can reach 'impossible' goals and lighten the burden of millions of the world's poorest people .... " These were the concluding words by former World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland at the closure ceremony of the Onchocerciasis(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable variation in the prevalence of childhood asthma and its symptoms (wheezing) has been observed in previous studies and there is evidence that the prevalence has been increasing over time. METHODS We have systematically reviewed the reported prevalence and time trends of wheezing symptoms among children, worldwide and within the same(More)
BACKGROUND Although high doses of ionizing radiation have long been linked to circulatory disease, evidence for an association at lower exposures remains controversial. However, recent analyses suggest excess relative risks at occupational exposure levels. OBJECTIVES We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on(More)
The biology of cancer is critically reviewed and evidence adduced that its development can be modelled as a somatic cellular Darwinian evolutionary process. The evidence for involvement of genomic instability (GI) is also reviewed. A variety of quasi-mechanistic models of carcinogenesis are reviewed, all based on this somatic Darwinian evolutionary(More)
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally exposed groups receiving small daily radiation doses. Assuming that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Models for complex biological systems may involve a large number of parameters. It may well be that some of these parameters cannot be derived from observed data via regression techniques. Such parameters are said to be unidentifiable, the remaining parameters being identifiable. Closely related to this idea is that of redundancy, that a set of(More)
BACKGROUND The high prevalence of children's asthma symptoms, worldwide, is unexplained. We examined the relation between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI), and asthma symptoms in adolescents. METHODS Data from 6945 adolescents born within the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 were used. Prospective antenatal and birth outcome data,(More)
BACKGROUND Heidenreich et al. (Risk Anal 1997 17 391-399) considered parameter identifiability in the context of the two-mutation cancer model and demonstrated that combinations of all but two of the model parameters are identifiable. We consider the problem of identifiability in the recently developed carcinogenesis models of Little and Wright (Math Biosci(More)