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BACKGROUND Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. METHODS In our retrospective cohort study,(More)
BACKGROUND Risks of most types of leukemia from exposure to acute high doses of ionizing radiation are well known, but risks associated with protracted exposures, as well as associations between radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are not clear. OBJECTIVES We estimated relative risks of CLL and non-CLL from protracted exposures to low-dose(More)
The biology of cancer is critically reviewed and evidence adduced that its development can be modelled as a somatic cellular Darwinian evolutionary process. The evidence for involvement of genomic instability (GI) is also reviewed. A variety of quasi-mechanistic models of carcinogenesis are reviewed, all based on this somatic Darwinian evolutionary(More)
he accomplishments of this Programme inspire all of us in public health to dream big dreams. It shows we can reach 'impossible' goals and lighten the burden of millions of the world's poorest people .... " These were the concluding words by former World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland at the closure ceremony of the Onchocerciasis(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of incident myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and all cause mortality associated with prescription of oral antidiabetes drugs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING UK general practice research database, 1990-2005. PARTICIPANTS 91,521 people with diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incident(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable variation in the prevalence of childhood asthma and its symptoms (wheezing) has been observed in previous studies and there is evidence that the prevalence has been increasing over time. METHODS We have systematically reviewed the reported prevalence and time trends of wheezing symptoms among children, worldwide and within the same(More)
OBJECTIVE In view of mobile phone exposure being classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), we determined the compatibility of two recent reports of glioma risk (forming the basis of the IARC's classification) with observed incidence trends in the United States. DESIGN Comparison of observed rates(More)
BACKGROUND Although high doses of ionizing radiation have long been linked to circulatory disease, evidence for an association at lower exposures remains controversial. However, recent analyses suggest excess relative risks at occupational exposure levels. OBJECTIVES We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on(More)
BACKGROUND Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation-induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state,(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with the parasitic filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus can lead to severe visual impairment and ultimately blindness. Excess mortality has been noted among people with onchocerciasis, but it is not clear whether this effect is entirely due to blindness, or mediated by some more direct effects of the infection. METHODS We assessed(More)