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  • Simeon Djankov, Caralee McLiesh, +11 authors Andrew Weiss
  • 2001
We examine the patterns of media ownership in 97 countries around the world. We find that almost universally the largest media firms are owned by the government or by private families. Government ownership is more pervasive in broadcasting than in the printed media. We then examine two theories of government ownership of the media: the public interest(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) at start of antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom.(More)
BACKGROUND Although interferon-free regimens are approved for patients co-infected with HIV and genotype-2 or genotype-3 hepatitis C virus (HCV), interferon-based regimens are still an option for those co-infected with HIV and HCV genotypes 1 or 4. These regimens are limited by clinically significant toxic effects and drug interactions with antiretroviral(More)
In this paper, we study different methods of data compression algorithms on English text files : LZW, Huffman, Fixed-length code (FLC), and Huffman after using Fixed-length code (HFLC). We evaluate and test these algorithms on different text files of different sizes and make a comparison in terms of compression : Size, Ratio, Time (Speed), and Entropy. We(More)
OBJECTIVES Genotypic HIV drug-resistance testing is typically 60%-65% predictive of response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is valuable for guiding treatment changes. Genotyping is unavailable in many resource-limited settings (RLSs). We aimed to develop models that can predict response to ART without a genotype and evaluated their(More)
An emergent problem in the study of pathogen evolution is our ability to determine the extent to which their rapidly evolving genomes recombine. Such information is necessary and essential for locating pathogenicity loci using association studies, and it also directs future screening, therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Recombination also complicates(More)
BACKGROUND Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure thresholds have been defined for the diagnosis of mild hypertension but not for its treatment or for other blood pressure thresholds used in the diagnosis of moderate to severe hypertension. We aimed to derive age and sex related ambulatory blood pressure equivalents to clinic blood pressure thresholds(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000-2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest(More)
Clinical data on 7840 HIV-positive patients, representing 43 745 patient-years of follow-up, has been collected. All patients with ARL since 1986 (n = 150) were assessed at presentation for prognostic factors and outcomes recorded. Comparisons are made between cases in the pre-HAART era (1988-1995), and the HAART era (1996-1999). Statistical models are used(More)