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Despite the significant contribution of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) to an endogenous pain suppression system, little is known about its neurochemical organization. Previous pharmacological and physiological studies have indicated regional variations in the effectiveness with which the midbrain PAG can generate potent analgesia in response to either opiate(More)
BACKGROUND Bleeding from small bowel neoplasms account for 1-4% of cases of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Renal cell carcinoma constitutes 3% of all adult malignancies and often presents insidiously. Consequently 25-30% of patients have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Gastrointestinal bleeding from renal cell carcinoma metastases is an uncommon(More)
The metabolism of benzoic acid has been examined in the horse, using 14C- and deuterium-labelled compounds. Chromatographic analysis of the urine showed the presence of hippuric acid, benzoyl glucuronide and benzoic acid and a discrete band which accounted for 2% of the dose administered. This material was isolated by solvent extraction and HPLC and,(More)
Although soluble CD40L (sCD40L, possibly derived from platelets and pro-inflammatory in vitro) may be implicated in thrombosis and haemostasis, there are little data in peripheral artery disease (PAD). We hypothesised the following: (a) that sCD40L relates to the clinical severity of PAD; and (b) that peripheral artery angioplasty acutely raises sCD40L(More)
Despite the important contribution of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) to endogenous pain suppression systems, little is known about the neuroanatomical basis of its functional organization. In a previous study of the distribution of the endogenous opiate leucine-enkephalin (ENK) in the PAG (Moss, M. S., E. J. Glazer, and A. I. Basbaum (1983) J.(More)
1. 14C-Labelled benzoic acid, salicylic acid and 2-naphthylacetic acid were administered orally to horses, and urinary metabolites investigated by chromatographic and mass spectral techniques. 2. [14C]Benzoic acid (5 mg/kg) was eliminated rapidly in the urine, and quantitatively recovered in 24 h. The major urinary metabolite was hippuric acid (95% of dose)(More)
Although the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is thought to have a major role in an endorphin-mediated analgesia system, little is known about its neuroanatomical organization. To determine the microcircuitry within the PAG through which exogenous and endogenous opiates may act, we analyzed the synaptic organization of normal and immunoreactive enkephalin(More)