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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the TGFbeta protein family that is essential for neuronal survival and renal morphogenesis. We show that mice who are deficient in the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -linked protein GFRalpha1 (GDNFRalpha) display deficits in the kidneys, the enteric nervous system, and spinal(More)
|A novel evolutionary computing method | quantum inspired genetic algorithms | is introduced, where concepts and principles of quantum mechanics are used to inform and inspire more eecient evolutionary computing methods. The basic terminology of quantum mechanics is introduced before a comparison is made between a classical genetic algorithm and a quantum(More)
Both researchers and practitioners need to know more about how laboratory treatment protocols translate to real-world practice settings and how clinical innovations can be systematically tested and communicated to a skeptical scientific community. The single-case time-series study is well suited to opening a productive discourse between practice and(More)
The paper identiies and demonstrates the feasibility of a novel computational paradigm which is inspired by the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. A brief history of quantum computing and basic exposition of quantum mechanics are provided, followed by a detailed description of Shor's quantumàlgorithm' for factoring very large numbers. An(More)
A full understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of silica in the North Atlantic is hampered by a lack of estimates of silica uptake by phytoplankton. We applied the 32 Si radiotracer incubation technique to determine silica uptake rates at 10 sites during the UK-(Natural Environment Research Council) Faroes–Iceland–Scotland hydro-graphic and(More)
iii Nomenclature A fuselage cross-sectional area A B fuselage surface area A F frame cross-sectional area (AR) aspect ratio of wing b wingspan; intercept of regression line b s stiffener spacing b S wing structural semispan, measured along quarter chord from fuselage b w stiffener depth C F Shanley's constant C P center of pressure C R root chord of wing at(More)
Using mice double deficient for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LTo0, we demonstrated that TNF and/or LToL are necessary for development of a normal splenic mi-croarchitecture and for isotype switch after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In the present study, we extended these observations by determining which TNF receptor(More)
The importance of genetic predisposition, inflammation, and autoimmune mechanisms in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is becoming increasingly clear. We hypothesized that the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells would distinguish patients with PAH from normal volunteers. We also hypothesized(More)
Three experiments were done to test the hypothesis that the spacing effect results from a voluntary decision by the subject to pay little attention to the second presentation (P2) of an item when it occurs shortly after the first (P(1))- In all three experiments, the spacing of repetitions was varied. In Experiment I, allocation of attention was manipulated(More)