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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
Macrophages are versatile immune cells that can detect a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns through their Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In response to microbial challenge, the TLR-stimulated macrophage undergoes an activation program controlled by a dynamically inducible transcriptional regulatory network. Mapping a complex mammalian(More)
We recently demonstrated the pivotal role of the transcription factor (TF) activating TF 3 (ATF3) in dampening inflammation. We demonstrate that ATF3 also ameliorates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of human asthma. ATF3 expression was increased in the lungs of mice challenged with ovalbumin allergen, and this(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent mediator synthesized by a variety of cells involved in inflammatory reactions. We investigated the expression of NO synthase (NOS) in rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC). Small amounts of eNOS mRNA were detected basally, whereas neither mRNA for iNOS nor nNOS was detected in unstimulated PMC. Following stimulation by antigen,(More)
MOTIVATION Histone acetylation (HAc) is associated with open chromatin, and HAc has been shown to facilitate transcription factor (TF) binding in mammalian cells. In the innate immune system context, epigenetic studies strongly implicate HAc in the transcriptional response of activated macrophages. We hypothesized that using data from large-scale sequencing(More)
BACKGROUND As part of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases funded collaborative project, we have performed over 150 microarray experiments measuring the response of C57/BL6 mouse bone marrow macrophages to toll-like receptor stimuli. These microarray expression profiles are available freely from our project web site(More)
Because thrombin-induced inflammation is partially mast cell-dependent and involves proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), we hypothesized that mast cells express PAR and can be stimulated with PAR-activating peptides (PAR-AP). We demonstrated that rat peritoneal mast cells expressed PAR-1 and PAR-2 mRNA, and that PAR-2AP (tc-LIGRLO-NH(2), 1 microm) induced(More)
BACKGROUND Current advances in modern technology have enabled the development and utilization of electronic medical software apps for both mobile and desktop computing devices. A range of apps on a large variety of clinical conditions for patients and the public are available, but very few target antimicrobials or infections. OBJECTIVE We sought to(More)
With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic(More)
Antimicrobial stewardship in the UK has evolved dramatically in the last 15 years. Factors driving this include initial central funding for specialist pharmacists and mandatory reductions in healthcare-associated infections (particularly Clostridium difficile infection). More recently, the introduction of national stewardship guidelines, and an increased(More)