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P2X receptors are a family of ATP-gated ion channels thought to have intracellular N and C termini and two transmembrane segments separating a large extracellular domain. We examined the involvement of the second putative transmembrane domain (TM2) of the P2X2 subunit in ion conduction, using the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM). This method(More)
To date, there have been at least eight different receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) identified in the central nervous system. These receptors fall into four pharmacological classes: 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4. The 5-HT1 class has been shown to contain at least four pharmacologically distinct subtypes, 5-HT1A-D. Of these, cDNAs encoding(More)
P2X receptors are a family of ion channels gated by extracellular ATP. Each member of the family can form functional homomeric channels, but only P2X2 and P2X3 have been shown to combine to form a unique heteromeric channel. Data from in situ hybridization studies suggest that P2X1 and P2X5 may also co-assemble. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by(More)
P2X receptors are simple polypeptide channels that mediate fast purinergic depolarizations in both nerve and muscle. Although the depolarization results mainly from the influx of Na(+), these channels also conduct a significant Ca(2+) current that is large enough to evoke transmitter release from presynaptic neurons. We sought to determine the molecular(More)
We present the cloning of 10 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits from the zebrafish. These subunits fall into five subtypes, each containing two paralogous genes. Thus, we report two NMDAR1 genes (NR1.1 and NR1.2), and eight NMDAR2 genes, designated NR2A.1 and NR2A.2, NR2B.1 and NR2B.2, NR2C.1 and NR2C.2, and NR2D.1 and NR2D.2. The predicted(More)
Kainic acid is a potent neurotoxin for certain neurons. Its neurotoxicity is thought to be mediated by an excitatory amino-acid-gated ion channel (ionotropic receptor) possessing nanomolar affinity for kainate. Here we describe a new member of the rat excitatory amino-acid receptor gene family, KA-1, that has a 30% sequence similarity with the previously(More)
P2X receptors are ATP-gated ion channels found in a variety of tissues and cell types. Seven different subunits (P2X(1)-P2X(7)) have been molecularly cloned and are known to form homomeric, and in some cases heteromeric, channel complexes. However, the molecular determinants leading to the assembly of subunits into P2X receptors are unknown. To address this(More)
The two paralogous P2X receptor subunit genes p2rx3.1 and p2rx3.2 are selectively expressed in overlapping, but unique, patterns of sensory neurons in the developing zebrafish. We constructed a series of transgenes derived from both genes using the recombineering technique. Transgenes utilizing either enhanced green fluorescent protein or monomeric red(More)
P2X3 receptors desensitize within 100 ms of channel activation, yet recovery from desensitization requires several minutes. The molecular basis for this slow rate of recovery is unknown. We designed experiments to test the hypothesis that this slow recovery is attributable to the high affinity (< 1 nM) of desensitized P2X3 receptors for agonist. We found(More)
We recently reported that a novel hetero-oligomeric P2X receptor is formed from the P2X(1) and P2X(5) isoforms when coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (). A more complete description of the pharmacology of this novel receptor is presented here. A brief application of ATP to a voltage-clamped cell transiently expressing P2X(1/5) receptors(More)