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OBJECTIVE To introduce a new miniature robot (SpineAssist; MAZOR Surgical Technologies, Caesarea, Israel) that has been developed and tested as a surgical assistant for accurate percutaneous placement of pedicle screws and translaminar facet screws. METHODS Virtual projections in three planes-axial, lateral, and anteroposterior-are reconstructed for each(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of a novel bone-mounted miniature robotic system for percutaneous placement of pedicle and translaminar facet screws. METHODS Thirty-five spinal levels in 10 cadavers were instrumented. Each cadaver's entire torso was scanned before the procedure. Surgeons planned optimal entry points and trajectories for screws on(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Different atlantoaxial fusion techniques are used for instability. Transarticular screws are biomechanically superior to wiring techniques and equivalent to C1 lateral mass to C2 pedicle (C1LM-C2P) fixation. Recently, C1 lateral mass to C2 laminar (C1LM-C2L) fixation has been shown to have flexibility similar to C1LM-C2P fixation in(More)
" The fundamentals are the future. " P erhaps the most fundamental of equations that describe rudimentary physical actions and reactions in the spine biomechanics arena is that which describes the relationship between bending moment, force, and moment arm length: MϭF ϫ D, where M is the bending moment, F is the force applied, and D is the distance from the(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the ventral and lateral surface strain distributions and stiffness for two types of interbody cage placement: 1) central placement for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF); and 2) dorsolateral placement for extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF). METHODS Two functional spine units were(More)
OBJECT The authors conducted a study to compare biomechanical effects on the cervical spine of bridging fixation and intermediate fixation techniques, in both fixed and dynamic modes. METHODS A biaxial, servohydraulic machine biomechanically tested 23 human cervical spines for stiffness and strain in compression, extension, flexion, and lateral bending(More)
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