Productive elements in a language compete with each other for productivity because of three central aspects of the language system: the introduction of random elements, the propagation of a suffix via productive derivation, and the intolerance of synonymy that can lead to the productive death of a less robust suffix. We investigate this emergent phenomenon,… (More)
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital valvular heart defect with an overall frequency of 0.5%–1.2%. BAVs result from abnormal aortic cusp formation during valvulogenesis, whereby adjacent cusps fuse into a single large cusp resulting in two, instead of the normal three, aortic cusps. Individuals with BAV are at increased risk for… (More)
At least some of the systematicity of language can be rooted in imperfection and flux. We assume that languages are the product of undirected (cultural) evolution with neither plan nor purpose and explore the role of competition in the organization of linguistic systems, with a narrow focus on inflectional morphology. In actual languages, there is often… (More)
17 criteria for suicide-by-cop incidents were applied to 39 such incidents and 18 control incidents. Analysis indicated the criteria differentiated the two groups and may be useful for investigators.