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BACKGROUND While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear. METHODS We assessed immunologic predictors of mortality in a case-control study within the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS(More)
BACKGROUND The use of inhaled glucocorticoids for persistent asthma causes a temporary reduction in growth velocity in prepubertal children. The resulting decrease in attained height 1 to 4 years after the initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids is thought not to decrease attained adult height. METHODS We measured adult height in 943 of 1041 participants(More)
BACKGROUND The bile acid derivative 6-ethylchenodeoxycholic acid (obeticholic acid) is a potent activator of the farnesoid X nuclear receptor that reduces liver fat and fibrosis in animal models of fatty liver disease. We assessed the efficacy of obeticholic acid in adult patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. METHODS We did a multicentre,(More)
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined.(More)
To evaluate the effect of a room high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) cleaner on cat-induced asthma and rhinitis, 35 cat-allergic subjects who were living with one or more cats were studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. After a 1 mo baseline period, subjects' bedrooms were equipped with an active or placebo air cleaner for the following 3(More)
BACKGROUND Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Excess mortality has decreased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients but without evidence of a decrease among patients with AIDS. We assessed temporal changes in excess mortality and elucidated risk factors for excess mortality in patients with AIDS diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (More)
BACKGROUND Before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rarely died of liver disease. In resource-rich countries, cART dramatically increased longevity. As patients survived longer, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became a leading cause of death; however, because(More)
BACKGROUND To date, only mutations in CCR5 have been shown to confer resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and these explain only a small fraction of the observed variability in HIV susceptibility. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis between 2 independent European genomewide association studies, each comparing HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Tracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS We classified children with asthma according to four characteristic patterns of lung-function growth and decline on the basis of graphs showing(More)