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It had long been known that the decapitated cock can cross a yard. During the last century an automatic mechanism controlling stepping movements has also been found in other vertebrates. The system controlling locomotion has many features similar to these systems controlling other natural movements: respiration (28), micturition (98), scratching (154),(More)
Trains of electrical stimuli were delivered to the mesencephalic 'locomotor region' in the rough skin newt. The current (3-12 mcA) and the interstimulus interval (100 to 200 ms) were adjusted so that locomotion arose in approximately 10 s, or so that the train remained subthreshold for initiation of locomotion. Impulses of single neurons in the hindbrain(More)
This chapter summarizes experiments which were designed to reveal how repetitive electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) recruits nearby hindbrain neurons into activity, such that locomotion can ensue in the tiger salamander, A. tigrinum. The MLR stimulus strength was subthreshold or near-threshold for locomotor movements to(More)
Synaptic responses of single neurons of upper cervical segments to stimulation of the bulbar "locomotor strip" were recorded extracellularly in mesencephalic cats. The stimulating current being about 30 muA, these responses usually had 2-7 ms latencies and appeared in neurons located at a depth of 2-4 mm from the dorsal surface (Rexed's laminae V-VIII).(More)
1. An attempt has been made to elucidate how direct stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR, with Horsley-Clarke coordinates P2, L4, and H0) is transmitted through the pons to the spinal cord where a stepping generator is presumed to exist. 2. A longitudinal strip, termed the "pontine locomotor region" (PLR), was identified. It extends(More)
Synaptic responses (postsynaptic potentials and action potentials) of medial and lateral bulbar neurons were evoked by stimulation of the medullary locomotor point (LP) and pontine inhibitory point (IP) by current up to 20 microA in mesencephalic decerebellated cats. Some neurons responded even to single (2-5/s) stimuli. Other neurons responded only to(More)
Electric stimulation (20-30/s, 10-20 muA) of the rhombencephalon in the decerebrated turtle may evoke cyclic coordinated movements of the limbs. The "locomotor region" is a strip oriented in the rostrocaudal direction which corresponds to the lateral reticular formation. Ipsi- and contralateral synpatic responses of single neurons were recorded(More)
Synaptic responses of neurons at the low thoracic level to microstimulation of a stepping strip in the dorsolateral funiculus with frequency of 20 and 40 pps were recorded in mesencephalic cats. Histograms of latencies of single neurons were usually monomodal, whereas two modes at 2-3 ms and 5-7 ms occurred in composed histograms. The data obtained show(More)