Mark L. Schattenburg

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Magnetic information storage density has increased at the rate of 60% per year for the past seven years. There is wide agreement that continuation of this trend beyond the physical limits of the continuous thin-film media currently used will likely require a transition to discrete, lithographically defined magnetic pillars. Interference lithography ~IL!(More)
The Constellation-X mission will perform X-Ray science with improvements in energy resolution and effective area over its predecessor missions. The primary instrument on each of the four Constellation-X spacecraft is the Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope (SXT). The SXT is a 1.6m diameter grazing incidence mirror assembly comprised of approximately 4000 optic(More)
Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud reveal a spectrum dominated by X-ray emission lines from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of oxygen, neon, magnesium and silicon, with little iron. The dispersed spectrum shows a series of monochromatic images of the(More)
Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication(More)
We present a spectrometer design based on a novel nanofabricated blazed X-ray transmission grating which is modeled to have superior efficiency. Here we outline a full instrument design proposed for Constellation-X which is expected to give resolving powers ~2000 (HEW). The spectrometer advantages include lower mass budget and smaller diffractor area, as(More)
The analysis of many systems in optical communications and metrology utilizing Gaussian beams, such as free-space propagation from single-mode fibers, point diffraction interferometers, and interference lithography, would benefit from an accurate analytical model of Gaussian beam propagation. We present a full vector analysis of Gaussian beam propagation by(More)
Metrology is the science and engineering of measurement. It has played a crucial role in the industrial revolution at the milli-inch length scale and in the semiconductor revolution at the micrometre length scale. It is often proclaimed that we are standing at the threshold of another industrial revolution, brought by the advent and maturing of(More)
We are developing scanning beam interference lithography ~SBIL! for writing and reading large gratings with nanometer level distortion. Our distortion goals require fringe locking to a moving substrate with subnanometer spatial phase error while measuring and controlling the fringe period to approximately one part per million. In this article, we describe(More)
The authors present a breakthrough multistage dry-etch process to create 100 nm half-pitch gratings in silicon with depths up to 6 m. Interference lithography was used to pattern gratings in an optically matched stack of materials to form a 400-nm-thick silicon oxide hard-mask. The oxide was then used to mask the subsequent deep reactive-ion etching of(More)
Volume x-ray gratings consisting of a multilayer coating deposited on a blazed substrate can diffract with very high efficiency, even in high orders if diffraction conditions in-plane (grating) and out-of-plane (Bragg multilayer) are met simultaneously. This remarkable property, however, depends critically on the ability to create a structure with near(More)