Mark L. Schattenburg

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Magnetic information storage density has increased at the rate of 60% per year for the past seven years. There is wide agreement that continuation of this trend beyond the physical limits of the continuous thin-film media currently used will likely require a transition to discrete, lithographically defined magnetic pillars. Interference lithography ͑IL͒(More)
Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication(More)
Metrology is the science and engineering of measurement. It has played a crucial role in the industrial revolution at the milli-inch length scale and in the semiconductor revolution at the micrometre length scale. It is often proclaimed that we are standing at the threshold of another industrial revolution, brought by the advent and maturing of(More)
The authors report a silicon-on-insulator ͑SOI͒ process for the fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings for high efficiency x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. This new grating design will lead to blazed transmission gratings via total external reflection on the grating sidewalls for x rays incident at graze angles below their(More)
Diffraction gratings are ubiquitous wavelength dispersive elements for photons as well as for subatomic particles, atoms, and large molecules. They serve as enabling devices for spectroscopy, microscopy, and interferometry in numerous applications across the physical sciences. Transmission gratings are required in applications that demand high alignment and(More)
The authors report on the fabrication of 200 nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator ͑SOI͒ wafers. These critical angle transmission ͑CAT͒ gratings require 3 – 5 ␮m tall freestanding grating bars with a very high aspect ratio ͑Ͼ100͒ and smooth sidewalls. In order to meet the challenging geometrical requirements, they modified and(More)
The surface topography of thin, transparent materials is of interest in many areas. Some examples include glass substrates for computer hard disks, photomasks in the semiconductor industry, flat panel displays, and x-ray telescope optics. Some of these applications require individual foils to be manufactured with figure errors that are a small fraction of a(More)
We are developing scanning beam interference lithography ͑SBIL͒ for writing and reading large gratings with nanometer level distortion. Our distortion goals require fringe locking to a moving substrate with subnanometer spatial phase error while measuring and controlling the fringe period to approximately one part per million. In this article, we describe(More)
We present a spectrometer design based on a novel nanofabricated blazed X-ray transmission grating which is modeled to have superior efficiency. Here we outline a full instrument design proposed for Constellation-X which is expected to give resolving powers ~2000 (HEW). The spectrometer advantages include lower mass budget and smaller diffractor area, as(More)