Mark L. Schattenburg

Ralf K Heilmann61
Carl G Chen19
Paul T Konkola16
Pran Mukherjee9
61Ralf K Heilmann
19Carl G Chen
16Paul T Konkola
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The authors report a silicon-on-insulator ͑SOI͒ process for the fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings for high efficiency x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. This new grating design will lead to blazed transmission gratings via total external reflection on the grating sidewalls for x rays incident at graze angles below their(More)
Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication(More)
The authors report on the fabrication of 200 nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator ͑SOI͒ wafers. These critical angle transmission ͑CAT͒ gratings require 3 – 5 ␮m tall freestanding grating bars with a very high aspect ratio ͑Ͼ100͒ and smooth sidewalls. In order to meet the challenging geometrical requirements, they modified and(More)
Metrology is the science and engineering of measurement. It has played a crucial role in the industrial revolution at the milli-inch length scale and in the semiconductor revolution at the micrometre length scale. It is often proclaimed that we are standing at the threshold of another industrial revolution, brought by the advent and maturing of(More)
The surface topography of thin, transparent materials is of interest in many areas. Some examples include glass substrates for computer hard disks, photomasks in the semiconductor industry, flat panel displays, and x-ray telescope optics. Some of these applications require individual foils to be manufactured with figure errors that are a small fraction of a(More)
Diffraction gratings are ubiquitous wavelength dispersive elements for photons as well as for subatomic particles, atoms, and large molecules. They serve as enabling devices for spectroscopy, microscopy, and interferometry in numerous applications across the physical sciences. Transmission gratings are required in applications that demand high alignment and(More)
High-resolution spectroscopy at energies below 1 keV covers the lines of C, N, O, Ne and Fe ions, and is central to studies of the Interstellar Medium, the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium, warm absorption and outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei, coronal emission from stars, etc. The large collecting area, long focal length, and 5 arcsecond half power diameter(More)
We have developed a new type of soft x-ray diffraction grating. This critical-angle transmission (CAT) grating combines the advantages of traditional transmission gratings (low mass, extremely relaxed alignment and flatness tolerances) with those of x-ray reflection gratings (high efficiency due to blazing in the direction of grazing-incidence reflection,(More)
  • Ralf K Heilmann, Glen P Monnelly, Olivier Mongrard, Nat Butler, Carl G Chen, Lester M Cohen +6 others
  • 2003
We report on progress in developing low-cost methods for shaping thin-foil glass x-ray optics. Such optics might serve as substrates for reflection gratings or as foil mirrors in high-throughput missions such as Constellation-X. Novel thermal shaping to lithographically defined pin chucks leads to the desired shape with high accuracy, thereby avoiding the(More)
  • Pran Mukherjee, Alexander Bruccoleri, Ralf K Heilmann, Mark L Schattenburg, Alex F Kaplan, L Jay Guo
  • 2010
The authors present a breakthrough multistage dry-etch process to create 100 nm half-pitch gratings in silicon with depths up to 6 ␮m. Interference lithography was used to pattern gratings in an optically matched stack of materials to form a 400-nm-thick silicon oxide hard-mask. The oxide was then used to mask the subsequent deep reactive-ion etching of(More)