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We investigate stock option exercise decisions by over 50,000 employees at seven corporations. Controlling for economic factors, psychological factors inuence exercise. Consistent with psychological models of beliefs, employees exercise in response to stock price trends—exercise is positively related to stock returns during the preceding month and(More)
We provide evidence on the characteristics of local-GAAP earnings for firms cross listing on US exchanges relative to a matched sample of foreign firms currently not cross listing in the US to investigate whether US listing is associated with differences in accounting data reported in local markets. We find that cross-listed firms differ in terms of the(More)
The current Bacillus anthracis vaccine consists largely of protective antigen (PA), the protein of anthrax toxin that mediates entry of edema factor (EF) or lethal factor (LF) into cells. PA induces protective antibody (Ab)-mediated immunity against Bacillus anthracis but has limited efficacy and duration. We previously demonstrated that activation of(More)
We examine the relation between the trading volume of a stock, expressed as a percentage of shares outstanding, and aspects of the stock’s past price path. We find that volume is significantly higher (in both economic and statistical terms) in weeks when the current price exceeds the highest price attained in the prior year. The evidence is consistent with(More)
Alum-based adjuvants facilitate vaccine-driven humoral immunity, but their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that lack of type II NKT cells is associated with intact, mature B cells but dampened humoral immunity following immunization with Alum-adsorbed T-dependent antigen. Type II NKT cells facilitated production of IL-4,(More)
The mechanism of enhanced presentation of ovalbumin (OVA) internalized as immunoglobulin A (IgA)-OVA via the IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR) was analyzed by focusing on the role of the FcalphaR-associated gamma chain. Comparison of B-cell transfectants expressing FcalphaR plus wild-type (WT) gamma chain or gamma chain in which the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based(More)
Exogenous CD1d-binding glycolipid (alpha-Galactosylceramide, alpha-GC) stimulates TCR signaling and activation of type-1 natural killer-like T (NKT) cells. Activated NKT cells play a central role in the regulation of adaptive and protective immune responses against pathogens and tumors. In the present study, we tested the effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal(More)
The human IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR, CD89) triggers several important physiological functions, including phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activation and antigen presentation. Efforts are underway to delineate FcalphaR signal-transduction pathways that control these functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that cross-linking of FcalphaR increased its(More)
A20 IIA1.6 B cells cotransfected with FcalphaR and wild-type gamma-chain (wt-ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif)) or FcalphaR and gamma-chain, in which the wt-ITAM was substituted with the FcgammaRIIA ITAM (IIA-ITAM), were used to investigate cell signaling events influencing presentation of FcalphaR-targeted exogenous Ag in the context of(More)
Natural killer T cells (NKT) represent a group of CD1d-restricted T-lineage cells that provide a functional interface between innate and adaptive immune responses in infectious disease, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. There have been remarkable advances in understanding the molecular events that underpin NKT development in the thymus and in the complex(More)