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The functions of dendritic cells (DCs) are tightly regulated such that protective immune responses are elicited and unwanted immune responses are prevented. 1 alpha 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1 alpha 25(OH)(2)D(3)) has been identified as a major factor that inhibits the differentiation and maturation of DCs, an effect dependent upon its binding to the(More)
OBJECTIVES Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is utilized in prenatal diagnosis to detect chromosomal abnormalities not visible by conventional karyotyping. A prospective cohort of women undergoing fetal CMA and karyotyping following abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings is presented in the context of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the(More)
Summary CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (TReg), suppress antigen-specific immune responses and are important for allograft tolerance. During pregnancy the mother tolerates an allograft expressing paternal antigens (the fetus) requiring substantial changes in immune regulation over a programmed period of time. We analysed whether immune-suppressive TReg cells(More)
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) inactivates cortisol to cortisone. In the placenta 11beta-HSD2 activity is thought to protect the fetus from the deleterious effects of maternal glucocorticoids. Patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess owing to mutations in the 11beta-HSD2 gene invariably have reduced birth weight, and we have(More)
The type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), has been suggested to play a role in the ontogeny of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and also protect the developing fetus from the deleterious effects of circulating maternal glucocorticoids. The abundance of 11beta-HSD2 in the(More)
Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2(More)
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25[OH](2)D(3)) is a potent immunomodulatory seco-steroid. We have demonstrated that several components of vitamin D metabolism and signaling are strongly expressed in human uterine decidua from first trimester pregnancies, suggesting that locally produced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may exert immunosuppressive(More)
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function(More)
The active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), 1,25[OH](2)D(3)) has well-established effects on bone metabolism and mineral homeostasis. However, recently it has become clear that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has potent antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions that are not immediately linked to its role as a skeletal regulator. Both the nuclear receptor(More)
Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction affects 2.2 per 10,000 births. It is a consequence of a range of pathological processes, most commonly posterior urethral valves (64%) or urethral atresia (39%). It is a condition of high mortality and morbidity associated with progressive renal dysfunction and oligohydramnios, and hence fetal pulmonary hypoplasia.(More)