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The functions of dendritic cells (DCs) are tightly regulated such that protective immune responses are elicited and unwanted immune responses are prevented. 1 alpha 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1 alpha 25(OH)(2)D(3)) has been identified as a major factor that inhibits the differentiation and maturation of DCs, an effect dependent upon its binding to the(More)
Summary CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (TReg), suppress antigen-specific immune responses and are important for allograft tolerance. During pregnancy the mother tolerates an allograft expressing paternal antigens (the fetus) requiring substantial changes in immune regulation over a programmed period of time. We analysed whether immune-suppressive TReg cells(More)
Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction affects 2.2 per 10,000 births. It is a consequence of a range of pathological processes, most commonly posterior urethral valves (64%) or urethral atresia (39%). It is a condition of high mortality and morbidity associated with progressive renal dysfunction and oligohydramnios, and hence fetal pulmonary hypoplasia.(More)
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital urinary tract obstruction can lead to perinatal mortality and morbidity. Assessing antenatal ultrasound features may help identify fetuses likely to suffer complications. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of antenatal ultrasound in the prediction of postnatal renal function in cases of congenital lower urinary tract obstruction(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the effect of prenatal bladder drainage on perinatal survival in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. DATA SOURCES Relevant articles were identified by searching the databases MEDLINE (1966-2002), EMBASE (1988-2002), and the Cochrane library (2000;4). METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION Studies were selected if the effect of(More)
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25[OH](2)D(3)) is a potent immunomodulatory seco-steroid. We have demonstrated that several components of vitamin D metabolism and signaling are strongly expressed in human uterine decidua from first trimester pregnancies, suggesting that locally produced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may exert immunosuppressive(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and outcome of lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO), including the sensitivity of antenatal diagnosis. DESIGN A retrospective population-based study. SETTING Regional population-based congenital anomalies register (WMCAR). POPULATION Fetuses affected by LUTO delivered between 1995 and 2007 to women resident in(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between thyroid autoantibodies and miscarriage and preterm birth in women with normal thyroid function. To assess the effect of treatment with levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes in this group of women. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and SCISEARCH(More)
OBJECTIVE Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is transforming clinical cytogenetics with its ability to interrogate the human genome at increasingly high resolution. The aim of this study was to determine whether array CGH testing in the prenatal population provides diagnostic information over conventional karyotyping. METHODS MEDLINE (1970 to(More)